By Theodor W. Adorno
In the beginning of his profession within the Twenties, Adorno sketched a plan to put in writing an incredible paintings at the concept of musical replica, a role he back to again and again all through his profession yet by no means accomplished. the alternative of the observe replica in preference to interpretation shows a chief supposition: that there's a sincerely outlined musical textual content whose precision exceeds what's noticeable at the web page, and that the performer has the accountability to breed it as effectively as attainable, past easily taking part in what's written. This job, based on Adorno, calls for an in depth figuring out of all musical parameters of their ancient context, and his reflections upon this job result in a primary learn of the character of notation and musical sense.
In a number of the notes and texts introduced jointly in Towards a idea of Musical Reproduction, one unearths Adorno always circling round an irresolvable paradox: interpretation can purely fail the paintings, but in simple terms via it might music’s actual essence be captured. whereas he now and then turns out extra certain in his pronouncement of a musical score’s absolute price simply as a e-book is learn silently, no longer aloud his discourse time and again screens his lack of ability to grasp to that trust. it truly is this caliber of uncertainty in his reflections that really shows the scope of the discourse and its carrying on with relevance to musical suggestion and perform today.
“Towards a concept of Musical Reproduction addresses the dialectical relation among the musical rating (inscription) and its discovered sound (performance), the 2 components assembly in an act of interpretation, which will produce what Adorno a number of instances calls the x-ray snapshot of the paintings, the subcutaneous intensity that lies past floor manifestation. Adorno’s hindrance is how track ability, greater the way it is made significant. The publication is a fraction, a collection of in depth notes; what survives—more than 2 hundred print pages—is still very significant. Adorno’s reviews and commentaries, continually aphoristic, are full of perception and, into the discount, are richly provocative and quite often provoking.” —Richard Leppert, college of Minnesota
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Extra resources for Towards a Theory of Musical Reproduction: Notes, a Draft and Two Schemata
1974), einem Hybrid von politischem Kampflied, Beethovens Diabelli-Variationen und PostAvantgardismus, erklärt sich nicht zuletzt dadurch. Das Populäre formierte sich aber nicht nur im Gegensatz von musikalischen Praktiken verschiedener Ethnien, aus denen der Ä »Jazz« als neues, zunächst afroamerikanisch dominiertes Phänomen hervorging, und der Pflege eines europäischen Werte- und Werkekanons durch die weiße Mittel- und Oberschicht in den großen Städten der Ostküste und des mittleren Westens. Tatsächlich gab es noch eine Reihe anderer Genres und Formationen, die zwischen den sozialen und musiksprachlichen Gegensätzen vermittelten: die Musik der Blaskapellen (an der Spitze die zu Weltruhm gelangte Band von John Philip Sousa), deren Repertoire unterhaltende und ernste Musik gleichermaßen umfasste und zur Verbreitung europäischer Klassik wesentlich beitrug; der Ragtime, dessen unmittelbare rhythmische Fasslichkeit (mit Wurzeln in der Synkopierung des scotch snap) mit einem komplexen und daher schriftlich fixierten Formenreichtum einherging; schließlich das populäre Musiktheater, allen voran am (New Yorker) Broadway, das von Anfang an auch die brennenden politischen und sozialen Probleme der amerikanischen Gesellschaft thematisierte.
Die Tonalität der 53 Phrasen lässt sich als klingendes Plädoyer für Offenheit hören: Das Stück kreist zwar um den Ton C, der zu Beginn erklingt, 25 2. Ein Sonderweg? Aspekte der amerikanischen Musikgeschichte aber es treten auch die der Obertonreihe entnommenen Töne fis und b hinzu (Bartóks »akustische Skala«), sodass sowohl eine modale wie eine dur-moll-tonale Deutung der Skalen denkbar ist. Das 1965 im San Francisco Tape Center entstandene Stück It ’ s Gonna Rain markierte Steve Reichs Übergang zu einer Kompositionstechnik mit Patterns (in diesem Fall durch gegeneinander geführte Tonbandschleifen erzeugt), die seitdem unter der – zunächst negativ konnotierten – Bezeichnung des Ä Minimalismus firmierte.
Die Reaktion war entsprechend heftig: Dvořáks Vorstoß, die orale afroamerikanische Musik ernst zu nehmen, für kunstfähig zu erklären und damit als Grundlage einer amerikanischen Kunstmusik vorzuschlagen, stieß in konservativen und fortschrittlichen Kreisen gleichermaßen auf entschiedene Ablehnung. « (zit. ). Die Dvořák-Kontroverse wurde auch zum Anstoß verstärkter Anstrengungen zur Entwicklung einer eigenen amerikanischen Musiksprache. Es war Charles Ives, der ebenso konsequent wie radikal daran arbeitete, die Heterogenität der amerikanischen Musik – also die Vielzahl ihrer ethnischen und sozialen Dialekte – zur Grundlage eines ganzen Werkkonzepts zu erheben.