Tissue Engineering in Regenerative Medicine by Andrew D. Leavitt (auth.), Harold S. Bernstein (eds.)

By Andrew D. Leavitt (auth.), Harold S. Bernstein (eds.)

Over the prior decade, major advances within the fields of stem telephone biology, bioengineering, and animal versions have converged at the self-discipline of regenerative drugs. This quantity presents a cutting-edge document on tissue engineering towards the targets of tissue and organ recovery and regeneration. Examples from diverse organ platforms are used to demonstrate growth with development components to help in tissue home improvement; the ability of stem cells for restoring broken tissues; novel man made biomaterials to facilitate mobilephone treatment; transplantable tissue patches that defend three-d constitution; man made organs generated in tradition; points of the immune reaction to transplanted cells and fabrics; and the improvement of compatible animal versions for non-human scientific trials. during the chapters, the reader will discover a standard subject of uncomplicated discovery informing scientific translation, and scientific reviews in animals and people guiding next experiments on the bench.

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30 O. S. 1 Xenobiotic-Free Conditions Many of the hESC lines currently in use have been exposed to animal products during isolation of the inner cell mass and propagation of hESCs in vitro. Under these conditions, hESCs could possess animal viruses and other unknown substances capable of eliciting a detrimental immune response in transplanted hosts. Currently, hESC lines under development for clinical use undergo extensive microbiological testing as strictly recommended by the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative.

Bernstein Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are another specific cell type derived from neuroectoderm. These support the neural retina by phagocytosing and renewing the photoreceptor outer segments of rhodopsin. Recent reports have shown that RPE can be induced from hESCs in the presence of nicotinamide and activin A under serum-free conditions [66]. hESC-derived pigmented cells exhibit the morphological and functional properties of RPE cells after transplantation in an animal model of macular degeneration, a disease caused by dysfunction and loss of RPE.

20 O. S. Bernstein Fig. 2 Phase contrast images of undifferentiated and differentiating hESCs in culture. (a) A compact colony of proliferating pluripotent hESCs can be seen when cultured in defined medium on mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (b) Floating hEBs are observed at 2 days after induction of differentiation. (c) Differentiating cardiomyocytes appear within adherent cultures at 48 h after plating hEBs onto a gelatin-coated culture dish. 2a). Differentiating hESCs are easily distinguished by the loss of compact morphology and the appearance of flattened cells that form at the edges of the colony.

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