By David A. Lind, Scott P. Sanders (auth.)
Just over ten years in the past whilst the 1st drafts of this publication have been being written, or even extra so many years after that because it was once making its means during the booklet method, alpine snowboarding was once experiencing what ultimately turned a whole revolution in gear and tech nique: "shaped" or "parabolic" skis thoroughly took over the industry, or even quite starting skiers anticipated to carve swish turns as they schussed down the slopes. Re-reading our paintings with a watch to revision, we have now been stunned to work out how our specialize in the physics of snowboarding within the first version al lowed us to acknowledge the basic value of what have been then really novel alterations in apparatus and procedure. The essence of the enhancement provided by way of formed skis is their better sidecut radius. Our unique dialogue (then and now in Chapters three and four) of the the most important function ski's sidecut performs in carving a flip prompted us to jot down, for the main half, as though the formed ski had constantly been in lifestyles. Sim ilarly, our curiosity within the geometry ofthe sidecut allowed us to debate snowboards in a few element to boot, for the foremost to their skill to "shred" down the mountain is their deep sidecut.
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Extra resources for The Physics of Skiing: Skiing at the Triple Point
Natural snow that has been ground and packed at a ski area and artificial snow have densities ranging up to about 500 kg m- 3 , at most. Whether in nature or at the ski area, the snowpack is mostly air, very porous, and saturated with water vapor. The air pores in a snowpack do not begin to close significantly or become isolated until the snow has been so compacted over such a long period of time that it becomes glacial ice. All glacial ice was once newly fallen snow, and it retains air locked within it, either in tiny, isolated bubbles or entirely dissolved in the ice itself.
Avg. Freezing Temp. 2 °F. 4. The freezing temperature of more than 50 water sampies taken from natural sourees. 9°F. Natural water sampies have 0-115 nucleation sites per milliliter; the nucleating protein raises that number to about 250,000 nucleation sites per milliliter. ) Making Artificial Snow / 19 about 15 seconds, so the presence of the bacterial nucleating agent helps ensure that the droplets will freeze in the air, even at temperatures no more than a few degrees below freezing. Note how artificial snowmaking differs from the formation of atmospheric snow.
If one knows the general weather pattern for an area, the topography, and the vegetation, it is quite easy to identify major snow accumulation areas. Backcountry skiers should realize, for reasons to be discussed below, that these areas ofhigh snow accumulation are also areas with a high avalanche hazard. Unfortunately, they are also the prime powder skiing slopes, greatly preferred over the wind ward slopes whose surface-eroded snow will be hard packed. Although the snow falling from the sky always occurs as six-sided plates, prisms, needles, columns, or dendritic, six-armed lattices, these forms never remain for very long once the snow is on the ground.