By Steve LeVine
Distant, forbidding, and unstable, the Caspian Sea lengthy tantalized the area with its mammoth oil reserves. yet outsiders, blocked by means of the closed Soviet procedure, couldn’t get to it. Then the Soviet Union collapsed, and a wholesale rush into the sector erupted. in addition to oilmen, representatives of the world’s best international locations flocked to the Caspian for a proportion of the thirty billion barrels of confirmed oil reserves at stake, and a stressful geopolitical fight started. the most avid gamers have been Moscow and Washington–the former trying to hold keep an eye on of its satellite tv for pc states, and the latter cause on dislodging Russia to the advantage of the West.
The Oil and the Glory is the gripping account of this newest section within the epochal fight for keep watch over of the earth’s “black gold.” Steve LeVine, who was once established within the area for The Wall road magazine, the hot York Times, and Newsweek, weaves an astounding story of high-stakes political gamesmanship, greed, and scandal, set in a single of the main opaque corners of the area. In LeVine’s telling, the world’s strength giants jockey for place within the wealthy Kazakh and Azeri oilfields, whereas superpowers search to realize a strategic foothold within the sector and to maintain one another in payment. on the center of the tale is the competition to construct and function power pipelines out of the landlocked zone, the major to controlling the Caspian and its oil. The oil pipeline that resulted, the longest on this planet, is between Washington’s maximum overseas coverage triumphs in a minimum of a decade and a part.
Along the way in which, LeVine introduces such avid gamers as James Giffen, an American moneyman who used to be additionally the political “fixer” for oil businesses wanting to do enterprise at the Caspian and the dealer for Kazakhstan’s president and ministers; John Deuss, the flowery Dutch oil dealer who gained monstrous yet misplaced even greater; Heydar Aliyev, the oft-misunderstood Azeri president who transcended his previous as a Soviet Politburo member and masterminded a scheme to loosen Russian regulate over its former colonies within the Caspian area; and all demeanour of rogues, adventurers, and others drawn through the impossible to resist pull of untold riches and the potential “final frontier” of the fossil-fuel period. the wider tale is of the geopolitical questions of the Caspian oil bonanza, resembling even if Russia could be a relied on best friend and buying and selling companion with the West, and what Washington’s access into this crucial yet chaotic sector will suggest for its long term stability.
In an extreme and suspenseful narrative, The Oil and the Glory is the definitive chronicle of occasions which are understood by means of few, yet whose political and financial impression can be either profound and lasting.
"The cave in of the Soviet Union was once a massive chance for giant Oil, whose exploits are distinct during this fast moving paintings of political and fiscal reportage by means of Wall highway Journal strength correspondent LeVine.
Westerners were sniffing for black gold in Russia and its satellites lengthy earlier than the empire disintegrated, notes the writer. Averell Harriman, “the Harvard-trained scion of nineteenth-century robber baron Edward Harriman,” attempted his hand on the enterprise ahead of turning to manganese mining, whereas Armand Hammer “became a cash launderer for the Bolsheviks, sneaked funds to mystery Bolshevik brokers within the usa, and profited handsomely because the consultant in Russia of a few thirty American companies.” Hammer set the tone for the american citizens who flocked to the Caspian within the first years of the Clinton presidency, which maneuvered for the development of an east-west oil pipeline that, through reversing the outdated development of primary Asian fabrics going north to Russia and coming again as items on the market, “would desire the West and disfavor Russia.” now not a pleasant option to deal with a fledgling democracy, however the oil scouts, in fact, thought of Russia a rival for Central-Asian assets moment purely to Iran, with its heartfelt and long-standing enmity towards the U.S. within the zone and overseas. those scouts–the first between equals being LeVine’s heart-of-darkness antihero, Jim Giffen–kept their distance whilst Russia nonetheless had regulate over the realm, spurning a Gorbachev-era application to permit international co-ownership. yet they rushed to help separatist events and inspired ethnic and political divisions that opened the door to a much bigger proportion of the wealth. the story of Giffen’s upward thrust and fall (the latter for probably extraordinary purposes) occupies a lot of the later pages, yet he by no means loses sight of the larger photo: specifically, valuable Asia as oil lamp and capability powder keg within the realpolitik of the following couple of years.
A advanced tale rendered understandable, with a lot drama and intrigue."--KIRKUS
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Extra resources for The Oil and the Glory: The Pursuit of Empire and Fortune on the Caspian Sea
A subpart is a letter of the alphabet (A-Z) that is used to retrieve an entire subpart of the CFR rather than many individual sections. For example: Subpart E. r Revision Year: The four-digit year from the “Revised as of” text represents the year being cited. The revision year is not always available when the CFR is cited. 16 Guide to US Food Laws and Regulations The following example illustrates information contained in a CFR citation. 502 Revised as of April 1, 1997 r Title: 21 r Part: 310 r Section: 502 r Year: 1997.
According to The Black’s Law Dictionary (1979, p. 47), adulteration is: The act of corrupting or debasing. The act of mixing something impure or spurious with something pure or genuine, or an inferior article with a superior one of the same kind. The term is generally applied to the act of mixing up with food or drink intended to be sold other matters of an inferior quality, and usually a more or less deleterious quality. The act, process or omission to act whereby food becomes impure and unfit for consumption.
The McNary-Mapes Amendment or the “canner’s amendment” in 1930 authorized the FDA standard of quality and fill of container for canned food, excluding milk and meat products. How Did We Get Where We Are Today? 35 From 1906 to 1933, federal agencies and the court systems dealt with many glaring problems with the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act. , the company intended to deceive the consumer), it was nearly impossible to prove these claims. Additionally, the 1906 law became outdated because of the technological advances that were transforming the production and marketing of foods, drugs, and related products.