The Nile. River in the Sand by Molly Aloian

By Molly Aloian

The Nile is the world's longest river and the birthplace of 1 of the best civilizations of the traditional international. This ebook takes readers alongside the 'River within the Sand'.

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An ancient Egyptian civilization begins to develop. The Egyptian empire is formed from the kingdoms along the Nile River. Greek historian Herodotus travels to Egypt. Roman explorers set sail up the Nile River to find its source but stop at the Sudd. Engineers complete the first modern irrigation system in the Nile River delta. 29 GLOSSARY Bantu A group of African languages carnivore An animal that eats meat cataracts Large waterfalls delta A triangular or fan-shaped area of land at the mouth of a river dendritic Branching like a tree irrigation The watering of land in an artificial way to foster plant growth drainage basin The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries migratory Moving periodically from one region or climate to another for feeding or breeding drainage pattern The arrangement of a main stream and its tributaries mouth The place where a river enters a larger body of water ecology The relationship between living and nonliving things and their environment mummy A dead body treated for burial with preservatives in the manner of the ancient Egyptians economy The way money and goods are produced, consumed, and distributed papyrus A reed-like plant that can be made into strips and pressed into a material to write on geologists Scientists who study the history of Earth and its life, especially as recorded in rocks glaciers Large bodies of ice and snow moving slowly down a slope or spreading outward on land pharaohs Rulers of ancient Egypt portage To carry boats or goods overland from one body of water to another or around an obstacle (such as rapids) gorges Narrow canyons with steep walls predator An animal that gets its food by hunting and eating other animals groundwater Water within Earth, especially that supplies wells and springs quarries Open pits, usually for obtaining building stone habitat The environment in which a plant or an animal naturally lives and grows regulated Controlled by law or another authority headstream A stream that forms the source of a river hydroelectricity Electricity that is produced by the movement of water hydropolitics Conflict and cooperation between governments with respect to water resources indigenous Originating, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment inundation Overflow of floodwaters 30 invasive species Species that do not naturally occur in a specific area and that cause economic or environmental harm to that area reservoirs Artificial lakes in which water is collected and kept for use rifts Cracks in Earth’s crust that widen over time runoff Water from rain or snow that flows over the surface of the ground and into rivers silt Small particles of sand or rock left as sediment tributaries Smaller rivers and streams that flow into larger bodies of water FIND OUT MORE BOOKS Bowden, Rob.

Settlements of the River Nile. Heinemann-Raintree, 2005. Ylvisaker, Anne. The Nile River. Compass Point Books, 2005. Challen, Paul. Life in Ancient Egypt. Crabtre Publishing Company, 2005 Ylvisaker, Anne. The Nile River. Compass Point Books, 2005. Moscovitch, Arlene. Egypt the Land. (Revised edition). html ABOUT THE AUTHOR Molly Aloian has written more than 50 nonfiction books for children on a wide variety of topics, including endangered animals, animal life cycles, continents and their geography, holidays around the world, and chemistry.

31 INDEX Page references in bold type are to illustrations. Abu Simbel, temple 16, 23 Africa 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 25 Alexander the Great 15 animals and plants 4, 7, 10, 11, 13, 25, 26 Aswan (Egypt) 5, 16, 19, 21, 29 Aswan High Dam (Egypt) 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 29 Atbara River (Sudan) 5 Bantu (language) 19 Blue Nile 5, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 23, 29 Bruce, James 17, 29 Burundi 9, 25 Cairo (Egypt) 5, 14, 18, 22, 24, 29 civilization, growth of 5, 6, 12–18, 20 climate change 26 course of river 5, 10, 21 crocodile 11 dams 10, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27 delta 5, 16, 25, 26, 29 Dinka 19 drainage basin 9, 10 drainage pattern 10 drip irrigation 27 economy 13, 18, 19, 21, 22 Egypt, ancient 4, 5–6, 10, 12, 13–18, 19, 20, 21, 29 environmental damage 24–26, 29 Ethiopia 7, 9, 16, 17, 23 exploration and discovery 9, 16–17, 18 32 farmers and farming 4, 6, 12, 13, 14, 24, 25, 27 feluccas 20, 21, 22 fish 6, 11, 13, 22 flooding 5, 6, 10, 12,13, 14, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29 flow control 10, 21 formation of river 8, 29 fruits and vegetables 13, 24 Great Britain 15, 21 habitat 11, 25 Herodotus 15, 16, 29 hippopotamus 7, 11 hydroelectricity 6, 22, 24, 27 hydropolitics 26 importance of river 5–6, 7, 25 invasive species 25 irrigation 6, 10, 13, 21, 24, 25, 27, 29 Kagera River (Burundi) 9, 18 Kenya 9, 23 Khartoum (Sudan) 5, 8, 16 Lake Nasser (Egypt) 22, 23 Lake Tana (Ethiopia) 7, 9, 16, 17, 29 Lake Victoria (Africa) 9, 11, 17, 18, 19, 23, 29 Livingstone, David 17, 18 Luxor (Egypt) 12, 13, 18, 19 Mediterranean Sea 5, 8, 9, 21, 25 Nile Basin Initiative 27, 29 Nuer 19 Nyungwe Forest (Rwanda) 9 Páez, Pedro 17 papyrus 10, 14, 29 pharaohs 14, 16 Philae Temple (Egypt) 4, 5 pollution 25, 26 population growth 17, 26 poverty 25, 26 pyramids 14, 15, 22 quarries 19 Ramses II, pharaoh 16, 23 religious beliefs 4, 5, 6, 15, 18 rifts 8 Roman Empire 15, 29 Rwanda 9, 25 Sahara Desert 4, 5, 11, 29 shaduf 13 silt 12, 25, 27 source of river 9, 16, 17, 18, 29 Speke, John Hanning 17, 29 Stanley, Henry 18 Sudan 5, 11, 16, 19 Sudd, swamp (Sudan) 10, 11, 29 Tanzania 9, 18, 23, 25 temples 4, 5, 14, 15, 16, 18, 22, 23 Tisisat Falls (Ethiopia) 8, 9, 23 tombs 14, 18 tourism 7, 19, 22, 23 transportation and shipping 6, 10, 14, 20–22, 23 tributaries 5, 9, 10, 12, 18, 19 Uganda 9, 23, 25 White Nile 5, 8, 16, 17, 19 Since ancient times, rivers have shaped the course of human history.

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