By Piotr S. Wandycz
The Lands of Partitioned Poland, 1795-1918 comprehensively covers an immense, advanced, and arguable interval within the heritage of Poland and East valuable Europe, starting in 1795 while the remnanst of the Polish Commonwealth have been dispensed between Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and culminating in 1918 with the re-establishment of an self sufficient Polish country. till this thorough and authoritative examine, literature at the topic in English has been constrained to a couple chapters in multiauthored works.
Chronologically, Wandycz strains the histories of the lands below Prussian, Austrian, and Russian rule, stating their divergent evolution in addition to the threads that sure them jointly. the result's a balanced, accomplished photograph of the social, political, monetary, and cultural advancements of all nationalities inhabiting the land of the outdated commonwealth, instead of a constrained heritage of 1 nation (Poland) and one humans (the Poles).
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30 O. S. 1 Xenobiotic-Free Conditions Many of the hESC lines currently in use have been exposed to animal products during isolation of the inner cell mass and propagation of hESCs in vitro. Under these conditions, hESCs could possess animal viruses and other unknown substances capable of eliciting a detrimental immune response in transplanted hosts. Currently, hESC lines under development for clinical use undergo extensive microbiological testing as strictly recommended by the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative.
Bernstein Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are another specific cell type derived from neuroectoderm. These support the neural retina by phagocytosing and renewing the photoreceptor outer segments of rhodopsin. Recent reports have shown that RPE can be induced from hESCs in the presence of nicotinamide and activin A under serum-free conditions . hESC-derived pigmented cells exhibit the morphological and functional properties of RPE cells after transplantation in an animal model of macular degeneration, a disease caused by dysfunction and loss of RPE.
20 O. S. Bernstein Fig. 2 Phase contrast images of undifferentiated and differentiating hESCs in culture. (a) A compact colony of proliferating pluripotent hESCs can be seen when cultured in defined medium on mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (b) Floating hEBs are observed at 2 days after induction of differentiation. (c) Differentiating cardiomyocytes appear within adherent cultures at 48 h after plating hEBs onto a gelatin-coated culture dish. 2a). Differentiating hESCs are easily distinguished by the loss of compact morphology and the appearance of flattened cells that form at the edges of the colony.