The Hopi by Nancy Bonvillain

By Nancy Bonvillain

Examines the background, tradition, altering fortunes, and present scenario of the Hopi Indians. The emergence -- Origins -- The Hopi global -- dealing with the intruders -- demanding situations to concord -- Adjusting to alter -- the fashionable Hopi -- The Hopi within the twenty-first century

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Hair washing was not only part of personal The Hopi World hygiene but was also an important feature of many rituals, including ceremonies marking the naming of babies, girls’ puberty rites, and marriages. In traditional times, men wore woven cotton shirts and aprons over deerskin leggings. Women wore woven blouses and skirts. Clothing was sometimes brightly embroidered with contrasting colors and designs. Both women and men adorned themselves with sashes, necklaces, and articles of turquoise and shell jewelry.

The Hopis were helped by groups of Navajos and Utes who raided the Spanish soldiers. Spanish authorities sent additional expeditions into Hopi territory with the aim of either convincing the Hopis to submit to Spanish control or forcing them to do so. Both plans failed repeatedly, and Hopi communities successfully withstood foreign domination. They were aided by a number of immigrants from other Pueblo communities in New Mexico who sought refuge among the western Hopis. The largest group of refugees arrived from the Tewa pueblos in 1696.

They killed the five priests living in their villages and destroyed the churches they had previously been forced to build. Once Spanish settlers, priests, and soldiers began to retreat from Pueblo territory, the Natives ceased their attacks. They allowed the foreigners to depart without further incident. Pueblo behavior was thus vastly different from the brutal retaliations that Spanish authorities had often meted out to the Native nations. Peace lasted for only twelve years. In 1692, Diego de Vargas led an army back to Pueblo land and successfully imposed control over most of the villages.

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