The Designer's Guide to Spice and Spectre by Ken Kundert

By Ken Kundert

The Designer's consultant to SPICE and Spectre® is an in-depth advisor to circuit simulators from a designer's point of view: the pitfalls of circuit simulation, corresponding to convergence and accuracy difficulties, are defined in phrases a circuit fashion designer is cozy with. The booklet offers designers perception into why those difficulties happen and the way to prevent them. It additionally offers functional recommendation on tips on how to make many tricky measurements with a circuit simulator, comparable to loop achieve of an op-amp or distortion measurements of such clocked circuits as d-to-a converters and sample-and-hold circuits. ultimately, feedback are given approximately the best way to deal with tough sessions of circuits, resembling oscillators, charge-storage or very huge circuits. After examining The Designer's consultant to SPICE and Spectre®, you are going to spend much less time battling your simulator and extra time exploring, realizing and designing your circuits.
Audience: Written for practicing analog and mixed-signal circuit designers who're already acquainted with the fundamentals of working SPICE. invaluable for an individual who makes use of a circuit simulator, irrespective of which, considering that the focal point is at the basic features and behaviour of circuit simulators as a rule.

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A typical annealing cycle for ferritic malleable iron is shown in Fig. 23. When pearlitic irons are to be produced, different schemes can be used, as shown in Fig. 24. The goal of the treatment is to achieve a eutectoid transformation according to the austenite-to-pearlite reaction. In some limited cases, quenching-tempering treatments are used for malleable irons. Fig. 23 Heat treatment cycle for ferritic blackheart malleable iron. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 24 Heat treatment cycles for pearlitic blackheart malleable irons Special Cast Irons Special cast irons, as previously discussed, are alloy irons that take advantage of the radical changes in structure produced by rather large amounts of alloying elements.

Without precisely applicable test data, an estimate of the reversed bending fatigue limit of machined parts may be made by using about 35% of the minimum specified tensile strength of the particular grade of gray iron being considered. This value is probably more conservative than an average of the few data available on the fatigue limit for gray iron. An approximation of the effect of range of stress on fatigue limit may be obtained from diagrams such as Fig. 14. Tensile strength is plotted on the horizontal axis to represent fracture strength under static load (which corresponds to a 0 stress range).

ASTM A 438 describes the standard method for performing transverse bending tests on separately cast, cylindrical test bars of gray cast iron. Compressive Strength. When gray iron is used for structural applications such as machinery foundations or supports, the engineer, who is usually designing, to support weight only, bases his calculations on the compressive strength of the material. Table 12, which summarizes typical values for mechanical properties of the various grades, shows the high compressive strength of gray irons.

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