The Clerics of Islam: Religious Authority and Political by Nabil Mouline

By Nabil Mouline

Followers of Muhammad b. ’Abd al-Wahhab, frequently thought of to be Islam’s Martin Luther, formed the political and spiritual identification of the Saudi country whereas additionally permitting the numerous all over the world growth of Salafist Islam. experiences of the move he encouraged, besides the fact that, have usually been constrained by way of students’ inadequate entry to key resources inside Saudi Arabia. Nabil Mouline was once granted infrequent interviews and admittance to big Saudi documents in instruction for this groundbreaking ebook, the 1st in-depth research of the Wahhabi non secular stream from its founding to the fashionable day. Gleaning info from either written and oral resources and using a multidisciplinary process that mixes heritage, sociology, and Islamic experiences, Mouline provides a brand new examining of this stream that transcends the standard lodge to polemics.

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In 1284, having received a solid training in all domains of Islamic knowledge, Ibn Taymiyya began teaching in the family madrasa before moving on to the mosque of the Umayyad. In 1291, the year the Crusades ended, he received official authorization to issue fatawa. Ibn Taymiyya’s first intervention in the public sphere took place during his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1292: he denounced suspect rituals and popular practices and called for orthodoxy and orthopraxy to be respected. The following year, he had the occasion to express this opinion publicly and vigorously when the authorities refused to apply the legal punishment against a Christian accused of having insulted the Prophet.

In the interest of imposing their domination over the juridico-religious space of the conquered territories, the Ottomans encouraged expansion of the Hanafi-Maturidi tradition, which they promoted to the rank of official school of the empire. While several Hanbali ulama produced reference works in Islamic law between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries—al-Mardawi (d. 1480), al-Hajjawi (d. 1560), al-Karami (d. 1624), and al-Buhuti (d. 1641)—Hanbali tradition crucially lacked figures whose charisma and ideological authority were capable of causing a stir or leaving an impression.

A brief survey of his career will allow us to see how he deployed an ethic of responsibility to preserve orthodoxy, orthopraxy, and the political order. Born in Baghdad around 780, Ahmad ibn Hanbal belonged to an Arab lineage of which some members served the Abbasid Caliphate. He began his initiatory journey in his native town, where he frequented various teaching circles (halaqat al-‘ilm). His desire to acquire as much knowledge as possible and collect a large number of prophetic traditions encouraged him to undertake a long voyage to southern Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and the Hijaz.

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