The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World by Francis Robinson, Ira M. Lapidus

By Francis Robinson, Ira M. Lapidus

Islamic peoples account for one 5th of the world's inhabitants and but there's frequent false impression within the West of what Islam relatively is. Francis Robinson and his staff got down to tackle this, revealing the complicated and occasionally opposite nature of Muslim tradition. in addition to taking up the problems uppermost in everyone's minds, corresponding to the position of non secular and political fundamentalism, they show the significance of trade; literacy and studying; Islamic paintings; the consequences of immigration, exodus, and conquest; and the roots of present crises within the center East, Bosnia, and the Gulf. all through, emphasis is put on the interplay among Islam and the West, from the 1st Latin translations of the Quran to the fatwa on Salman Rushdie. This based ebook intentionally units out to dismantle the Western impact of Islam as a monolithic international and change it with a balanced view, from present problems with fundamentalism to its dynamic tradition and artwork. Francis Robinson is the editor of 2 amazing reference works: Atlas of the Islamic international when you consider that 1500 (Cambridge, 1982) and The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India (1989).

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A story had been passed down for centuries that when Caliph Umar invaded, he told his commander Amr bin al-Ass: Touching the books you mention, if what is written in them agrees with the Qur’an, they are not required; if it disagrees, they are not desired. Destroy them therefore. The story, though unverifiable, said the books fueled the city’s bath-houses for six months. Caliph Umar assassinated with a dagger in 644 AD. 62 WHAT EVERY AMERICAN NEEDS TO KNOW A HISTORY OF ISLAM & THE UNITED STATES The next Caliph according to Sunni was Uthman.

Muslims are not encouraged to critically examine their faith, as they could be accused of doubting and punished by death. html MOHAMMED’S WIVES Mohammed’s first wife, Khadijah, financed him while he spent time meditating. She died around 620 AD. Following her death, Mohammed had 11 to 15 wives and many concubines, consorts and slavemistresses. (Hadith al-Tabari vol. 126-127) His wives names were: Sawda, Aisha, Umm Salama, Hafsa, Zainab (of Jahsh), Juwariya, Umm Habiba, Safia, Maymuna (of Hareth), Fatimah, Hend, Asma (of Saba), Zainab (of Khozayma), Habla, Asma (of Noman), Maria, Rayhana, Umm Sharik, Maymuna (not of Hareth), Zainab (third one), Khawla, and Duba.

Such was Jesus, son of Mary. It is a statement of truth. ” Allah said: “O Jesus! ” QUR’AN: CONFUSION OVER TRINITY The Father, Son and Holy Spirit being three distinct, co-eternal persons sharing one indivisible Divine essence was the orthodox Christian understanding of the Trinity. Possibly due in part to being illiterate, Mohammed mistakenly thought Christians worshiped three gods, and that these gods were the Father, Mary and Jesus. Idols were worshiped for centuries in Arabia and Persia: Sumerian goddess Ianna and her son; Akkadian goddess Ishtar and her son; Egyptian goddess Isis and her son; and Greek goddess Rhea and her son.

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