The 7 sexes : biology of sex determination by Elof Axel Carlson

By Elof Axel Carlson

Few folks comprehend a lot concerning the biology of intercourse decision, yet what might be extra attention-grabbing than to find how we're formed into ladies and men? during this booklet, Elof Carlson tells the marvelous tale of the tough quest to appreciate how the physique types boys and girls. Carlson’s historical past takes us from antiquity to the current day to aspect how every one section of human replica and sexuality was once pointed out and studied, how this information enlarged our realizing of intercourse choice, and the way it was once hired to interpret such little understood elements of human biology because the foundation of intersex births.

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But, when he shifted to an interpretive mode, he was on no better ground than his descendants for the next two thousand years in answering the question why half of all children are males and half are females. Aristotle was the most influential of naturalists from antiquity, whose work persisted among European and Middle East scholars for the next two millennia. Because he was not a practicing physician, his influence on the history of medicine was not as pronounced as that of Galen. 5 He is best known for his anatomy, which was based on dissection of the Barbary ape (macaque)—a text that prevailed until Andreas Vesalius used the human body (mostly executed prisoners) for dissection, overcoming years of resistance to dissecting the human body.

Either during embryonic development or after birth, depending on the species, some of these oogonia are converted into primary oocytes. The primary oocyte is an altered oogonium. It proceeds in its cell division and produces two nuclei: one nucleus is retained in the egg, and the other is extruded into a small bleb of cytoplasm. That extruded cell is called a polar body. The egg with the retained nucleus is now designated as a secondary oocyte. In some species, the secondary oocyte will undergo a second division, producing a mature egg (the ovum) and another polar body.

A rabbit’s Graafian follicle T h e Discov e ry of t h e Egg i n H igh er Eu k a ryot e s 35 is about the same size as its blastocyst, and de Graaf was working in the era before there were good microscopes. Because the follicle seemed too big to pass through the oviduct, de Graaf assumed that it was pulverized during its passage and reconstituted when it emerged and rested in the uterus. The oldest printed illustration of female internal genitalia is in Fasciculo de Medicina (1491) by Johannes de Ketham, a Viennese physician.

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