By Talib Al Hashmi
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Extra resources for Tareekh Islam Ki 400 Bakamal Khawateen
Muhammad had not only established a new religion, but also uniﬁed most of the Arab tribes under Islam; an unprecedented unity for tribal clans, but a unity that provided one of the most powerful armies, which, side by side with merchants and scholars, would spread Islam to the surrounding regions. ‘At the centre of this social and political revolution there was not just a man, but a book, the holy Qur’an’, said Rezeya, who continued, Muhammad saws did not want to be a Prophet. At the age of forty the angel Jibril forced the ﬁrst words of the Qur’an upon him, iqrā which means read or recite.
In this circumstance, Islam becomes texts, history, precepts and tenets. In this chapter, I have brieﬂy highlighted some of these aspects in order to facilitate the understanding of what we’ll cover in this book. Yet I have stressed that what we have discussed here is not Islam, but the equivalent of a map, which can help orientate us in a variegated and confusing territory. We have seen that Islam, as any other religion, relies on rituals symbolizing rites of passage. Indeed, while discussing some of the basic rituals shared by all Muslims, I have shown how personal interpretations can go beyond the ‘map’.
The sīrahs are narratives concerning the life and actions of the Prophet Muhammad, which can be compared to Jewish and Christian chronicles. The þadiths are the narratives of what Muhammad said in certain particular circumstances and, after the Qur’an, Muslims consider them the most important source of Islam. Two generations after the death of Muhammad, the þadiths, which in the beginning were transmitted orally, started to proliferate uncontrollably (Burton 1994; Hallaq 1999). It is not difﬁcult to imagine that some Muslims manipulated, or even created, þadiths to justify their own behaviour or to ease the Qur’anic rules.