By M. Kosztarab, F. Kozár
This ebook is devoted to the scientists whose specialist devotion and achieve ments in learn on scale bugs of the world made the compilation of this e-book attainable. This publication has fundamental targets: (1) to permit employees, who're now not experts of scale bugs, to acknowledge and indentify those to households, genera and species; and (2) to supply info at the lifestyles cycle, host-plant variety, normal enemies, geographical distribution, financial value for every recognized species from relevant Europe, and to supply a bibliography on each one taxa lined. Scale bugs are very important pests of fruit and nut bushes, wooded area plants, woody ornamentals, greenhouse and indoor vegetation. World-wide losses and elevated construction expenditures attributed to scale bugs are expected to arrive $5 billion every year. it really is tricky to acknowledge them due to their microscopic measurement and hidden behavior. identity of pest species allows plant growers to examine applicable reference resources for organic details and to pick regulate methods.
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Extra info for Scale Insects of Central Europe
In the Diaspididae the terminal segments from the 4th or 5th to the 8th are fused into a pygidium, which contains various species-specific lobes and plates on its posterior margin. The anal opening normally is located on the last abdominal segment, but in the Kermesidae it appears to be shifted on the venter. In most of the families the anal opening is surrounded by a sclerotized anal ring which bears setae and wax pores. In the family Margarodidae the anal ring is small and lacks setae or pores.
A number of plants in Central Europe have their own characteristic scale insect fauna. The genera Quercus (with 17 species of scales), Pinus (10) and Picea (8) have the highest proportion of mono- and oligophagous species, while most coccoids infesting deciduous trees (except oaks) are polyphagous (Kozar and Kosztarab, 1982). From among the herbaceous plant genera, Carex and Thymus, apparently have the largest number of specialized species (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1978). Plant-scale insect associations.
Mealybugs, ensign scales, giant scales and some other coccoids can be obtained from leaf litter, bark, soil or moss samples with a Berlese funnel. ) from preserved plant specimens in herbaria. Adult males can be collected with color cards or light sources and with sex pheromone-baited or suction traps. All scale insects can be preserved in vials of 70-75% ethyl alcohol. To fix tissues for quality slide mounts, the live scales can be placed in heated alcohol for a few minutes. Preservation by drying infested bark pieces in paper envelopes is practiced with representatives of Asterolecaniidae and Diaspididae.