Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger A., Nelson D.L., Cox M.M.

By Lehninger A., Nelson D.L., Cox M.M.

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And intermein width (from diate filaments (Fig. l-9)-differing 22 run), about 6 to composition,and specific function. All types provide structure and organizationto the cytoplasm and shapeto the cell. Actin fllaments and microtubules also help to produce the motion of organellesor of the whole cell. Thesefilaments are not permanent structures; they undergo constant disassemblyinto their protein subunits and reassembly into filaments. The assembly,disassembly,and location of all types of fllaments are regulated by other proteins, which serve to Iink or bundle the filaments or to move cltoplasmic organellesalongthe filaments.

The perspectivediagram speciflesstereochemistryunambiguously,but bond anglesand center-to-centerbond lengths are better representedwith ball-and-stickmodels. In space-fillingmodels,the radius of each "atom" is proportional to its van der Waalsradius, and the contours of the model definethe spaceoccupiedby the molecule (the volume of spacefrom which atoms of other moleculesare excluded). Threewaysto represent the structureof the amino acid alanine(shownhere in the ionic forrn form:a solid found at neutralpH).

H . Note that simplesugarfrom which most carbohydrates lipids. Chromatin consistsof two types of macromolecules, DNA and many different proteins, eachmadeup of simplesubunits. Figure 1-11 illustrates the structuralhierarchyin cellularorganization. The monomericsubunitsof proteins,nucleicacids, and polysaccharidesare joined by covalentbonds. Among these noncovalentinteractions are hydrogenbonds (between polar groups), ionic interactions (between charged groups), hydrophobic interactions (among nonpolar groupsin aqueoussolution),and van der Waalsinteractions (London forces)-all of which haveenergiesmuch smaller than those of covalent bonds.

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