Principles of Biochemistry 4th Edition by Albert L. Lehninger

By Albert L. Lehninger

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Biochemists now have an enormously rich and increasing treasury of evidence that can be used to analyze evolutionary relationships and to refine evolutionary theory. ; for the plants Arabidopsis thaliana and rice; and for the multicellular animals Caenorhabditis elegans (a roundworm), Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly), mice, rats, and Homo sapiens (you) (Table 1–4). More sequences are being added to this list regularly. With such sequences in hand, detailed and quantitative comparisons among species can provide deep insight into the evolutionary process.

To bring about the synthesis of macromolecules from their monomeric units, free energy must be supplied to the system (in this case, the cell). The randomness or disorder of the components of a chemical system is expressed as entropy, S (Box 1–3). Any change in randomness of the system is expressed as entropy change, ⌬S, which by convention has a positive value when randomness increases. J. Willard Gibbs, who developed the theory of energy changes during chemical reactions, showed that the freeenergy content, G, of any closed system can be defined in terms of three quantities: J.

The overall network of enzyme-catalyzed pathways constitutes cellular metabolism. ATP is the major connecting link (the shared intermediate) between the catabolic and anabolic components of this network (shown schematically in Fig. 1–28). The pathways of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that act on the main constituents of cells—proteins, fats, sugars, and nucleic acids—are virtually identical in all living organisms. Metabolism Is Regulated to Achieve Balance and Economy Not only do living cells simultaneously synthesize thousands of different kinds of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and nucleic acid molecules and their simpler subunits, but they do so in the precise proportions required by 8885d_c01_01-46 10/27/03 Chapter 1 28 7:48 AM Page 28 mac76 mac76:385_reb: The Foundations of Biochemistry the cell under any given circumstance.

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