Phrygian Rock-cut Shrines: Structure, Function, and Cult by Susanne Berndt-Ersoz

By Susanne Berndt-Ersoz

This significant contribution to the examine of Phrygian spiritual perform and spatial conceptualizations examines the function of the rock-cut monuments in Iron Age Anatolian and gives the reader with new points and theories of Phrygian cult and the mummy goddess Kybele.

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7–8 m north-west of this one (see Cat. No. 75). monuments, perhaps also connected with unrecorded sites, but they also appear to be situated along major routes. The Bahâayiâ Monument, No. 28, is located in a valley along a track used today, and the Delikli Taâ, No. 1, is situated along the main road used today between TavâanlÌ and HarmançÌk. 1. Different Types of Monument Situated Together Several monuments appear in groups (see Table 3), and we can make a few observations. Step monuments that appear in groups are usually relatively small, insignificant, coarsely made and placed next to each other, such as Nos.

9. 70 Haspels (1971, 112–138) gives the orientation of almost 69 19 Midas City it is obvious that an east, south-east or south orientation was preferred. In the Köhnüâ valley there are two niches facing a direction other than east or southeast and they are both made in connection with rock-cut tombs. Also, the façade at Kilise, No. 8, faces west and is situated among rockcut tombs. All the step monuments and niches not made in connection with rock-cut tombs in the Köhnüâ valley face east or south-east, while the rock-cut tombs usually face west or north.

Several monuments are close to natural, spectacular, tall, sheer rocks and, in a few cases, these sheer rocks have traces of man-made cuttings. Niches and smaller façades are sometimes situated at sheer lone rocks, usually at a location high above the ground. The larger step monuments have in general a large open area in front and around, while smaller step monuments can be located on top of rather inaccessible rocks, but these ones all face a spectacular view in front. Step monuments are in general located on the summit of a ridge or an outcrop of rock; in some cases the entire rock has been transformed into a monument, while a few larger step monuments are situated at ground level against a rock wall.

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