Perspectives on Development and Population Growth in the by O.G. Simmons

By O.G. Simmons

Until the early to mid-1970s, social scientists within the fields of inhabitants and improvement have been principally going their very own methods. Demographers relied virtually solely on demographic transition idea as their para­ digm for realizing the position of improvement in inhabitants switch and fertility decline. Conversely, such a lot improvement economists and different experts have been definitely conscious of the limitations positioned upon improvement pursuits through inhabitants progress. although, the most de­ velopment theories paid little cognizance to inhabitants and the implica­ tions of inhabitants progress for improvement. certainly it used to be no longer until eventually after the realm inhabitants convention in Bucharest in 1974 that the interplay of inhabitants and improvement grew to become a significant and pur­ posive subject for social medical learn. as a result, due to the fact that in regards to the mid-1970s, an intensive literature within the box of inhabitants and strengthen­ ment has been generated. And in 1975, less than the auspices of The Popu­ lation Council, the magazine inhabitants and improvement overview used to be came across­ ed, a magazine which long ago decade has constructed into the ultimate booklet on the planet for paintings during this zone. yet our knowing of improvement because it refers to alter in 3rd international nations remained fragmented. additionally, our figuring out of the linkages and interac­ tions among inhabitants and improvement was once very restricted. it really is during this regard that Ozzie Simmons's views on improvement and inhabitants development within the 3rd international will surely have an impact.

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1981) maintain that in poor countries, better nutrition, health, and education can be very productive in developing human resources, and these sectors are among the major ones embraced by the basic-needs approach. Although most of the literature has been focused on the problems of meeting the economic and physical dimensions of basic needs, some efforts have been made to place the basic-needs strategy within the broader framework of attaining human freedom and other factors that contribute to people's sense of identity, achievement, and satisfaction.

O'Brien (1975:11) has noted, "There are ... a number of different traditions within the theory of dependency: one clearly stems from the ECLA structuralist perspective .... " The Brazilian economist Celso Furtado is prominently associated with the ECLA structuralist perspective. As an ECLA economist, he at first strongly favored industrialization, but eventually he rejected this approach to focus on the dependent situation of the Latin American economies. Writing in 1965, he saw a vicious interaction between a wedge of industrial economy in the Latin American countries linked both in interests and behavior to its external patrons and an untransformed internal structure the existence of which enabled both local and foreign capitalists to maintain high profit levels by relying on an army of the unemployed (as described by Brookfield, 1975).

The term "basic needs" has elicited a variety of negative as well as positive reactions in both the OCs and the LOCs (Haq, 1981). " Whatever may be the factual basis for the negative perceptions regarding basic needs, there is no question that the prominent position this approach assumed in the development debate served to reinforce substantially the concern with alleviation of poverty; with certain critical consumption needs in such core sectors as nutrition, health, and education; and with provision of opportunities for individuals and communities to gain direct access to resources and to participate in development efforts.

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