Partitioning in Aqueous Two-Phase System. Theory, Methods, by Harry Walter

By Harry Walter

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Extra resources for Partitioning in Aqueous Two-Phase System. Theory, Methods, Uses, And Applications To Biotechnology

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Equating the two expressions for K4 gives: "(μ? ) ( ¿ " Χ34)] Clearly, there are contributions to the standard state chemical potential difference from the energies of interaction between the solute and all three components of the phase systems. The magnitudes of these contributions depend on the concentration differences of the polymers and solvent between the top and bottom phase and hence on the tie line length. The tie line length can be thought of as a particular kind of sum (the orthogonal sum) of the polymer concentration differences.

This appears to arise from the interplay of the density difference, interfacial tension, and phase viscosities of the system, all of which depend strongly on the polymer composition. The density difference between the phases, which provides the driving force for the settling of phase drops and streams, is proportional to the TLL (Bamberger et ah, 1984a). The interfacial tension depends much more strongly on the TLL, varying as TLL35 to TLL4·2 depending on the system (see Section II,B,l,g and Chapter 3).

The observed phase diagrams (Albertsson, 1971) show the predicted qualitative features with respect to molecular weight dependence and the compositional asymmetry between the phases (one phase can be virtually devoid of polymer but the salt distributes more equally). PEG/salt systems using sulfates or phosphates have proved particularly useful in sequential protein separation schemes because of their low cost and ease of handling (see Chapters 6 and 15). The most widely used phase systems for separation of biological material are those based on two polymers, typically Dx/PEG or Dx/Fi.

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