Panbiogeography: Tracking the History of Life (Oxford by Robin C. Craw, John R. Grehan, Michael J. Heads

By Robin C. Craw, John R. Grehan, Michael J. Heads

Biogeography is a various topic, usually targeting the distribution of vegetation and animals at diversified taxonomic degrees, prior and current. glossy biogeography additionally places emphasis at the ecological personality of the area crops forms, and at the evolving dating among people and their atmosphere. Panbiogeography describes a brand new synthesis of sciences of plant and animal distribution. The e-book emphasizes that the geographical styles of animal and plant distribution give a contribution on to the certainty and interpretation of evolutionary heritage. Geographic position is reintroduced as a serious component to either biogeography and evolutionary biology. The authors current chapters exploring the jobs of geology, ecology, evolution in panbiogeographic concept, and introduce new tools, modes of type, and methods of measuring biodiversity.

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47 48 PANBIOGEOGRAPHY F I G U R E 2-7. Model of Oligocene to present-day tectonic development of Baja California and southwestern North America due to movement on the San Andreas fault system. (Black shading) Granitic sub-belt; (arrows) fault movement (from Gastil and Jenskey 1973; reprinted by permission of Leland Stanford Junior University). America prior to displacement of microplates along the San Andreas transform fault zone places these distributions in close juxtaposition (fig. 2-8a). Geological evidence supports contiguity of drainage patterns prior to tectonic displacement (Minckley et al.

In panel d, the track link for the European fossil record is oriented to the Southeast Asian massing (two genera), and that for the North American fossil is oriented to the nearest neighbor in Columbia. These Pacific baselines support a non-Gondwanan origin for the southern beeches (after Schuster 1976, Melville 1982, Zhengyi 1983, Craw and Page 1988, Nixon and Crepet 1989). WHAT IS PANBIOGEOGRAPHY? 29 These areas can be described as nodes, and they were recognized by Croizat (1952) as the Magellanian and Polynesian gates (prominent nodes), respectively.

The track of L. propinqua surrounds those of L. poppelwellii and L. subulata, in a concentric ring distribution (fig. 2-9a). These tracks may be correlated with both areas of sea-level regression such as receding inland seas and regions of progressive tectonic uplift. Oligocene Otago coastlines were probably sites of speciation, as weedy taxa invaded and evolved on the land exposed by shifting and gradually shrinking seas (Heads 1990, 1994c). Ecological and geographical vicariance of taxa along the shore line occurs sequentially as the water progressively diminishes, retreats, and finally disappears, leaving only the tracks to mark the former shoreline (fig.

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