Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy: Volume IX: 1991 by Julia Annas

By Julia Annas

Oxford stories in historical Philosophy is an annual booklet such as unique articles, that could be of considerable size, on a variety of subject matters in historical philosophy, and evaluation articles of significant books.

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1974), einem Hybrid von politischem Kampflied, Beethovens Diabelli-Variationen und PostAvantgardismus, erklärt sich nicht zuletzt dadurch. Das Populäre formierte sich aber nicht nur im Gegensatz von musikalischen Praktiken verschiedener Ethnien, aus denen der Ä »Jazz« als neues, zunächst afroamerikanisch dominiertes Phänomen hervorging, und der Pflege eines europäischen Werte- und Werkekanons durch die weiße Mittel- und Oberschicht in den großen Städten der Ostküste und des mittleren Westens. Tatsächlich gab es noch eine Reihe anderer Genres und Formationen, die zwischen den sozialen und musiksprachlichen Gegensätzen vermittelten: die Musik der Blaskapellen (an der Spitze die zu Weltruhm gelangte Band von John Philip Sousa), deren Repertoire unterhaltende und ernste Musik gleichermaßen umfasste und zur Verbreitung europäischer Klassik wesentlich beitrug; der Ragtime, dessen unmittelbare rhythmische Fasslichkeit (mit Wurzeln in der Synkopierung des scotch snap) mit einem komplexen und daher schriftlich fixierten Formenreichtum einherging; schließlich das populäre Musiktheater, allen voran am (New Yorker) Broadway, das von Anfang an auch die brennenden politischen und sozialen Probleme der amerikanischen Gesellschaft thematisierte.

Die Tonalität der 53 Phrasen lässt sich als klingendes Plädoyer für Offenheit hören: Das Stück kreist zwar um den Ton C, der zu Beginn erklingt, 25 2. Ein Sonderweg? Aspekte der amerikanischen Musikgeschichte aber es treten auch die der Obertonreihe entnommenen Töne fis und b hinzu (Bartóks »akustische Skala«), sodass sowohl eine modale wie eine dur-moll-tonale Deutung der Skalen denkbar ist. Das 1965 im San Francisco Tape Center entstandene Stück It ’ s Gonna Rain markierte Steve Reichs Übergang zu einer Kompositionstechnik mit Patterns (in diesem Fall durch gegeneinander geführte Tonbandschleifen erzeugt), die seitdem unter der – zunächst negativ konnotierten – Bezeichnung des Ä Minimalismus firmierte.

Die Reaktion war entsprechend heftig: Dvořáks Vorstoß, die orale afroamerikanische Musik ernst zu nehmen, für kunstfähig zu erklären und damit als Grundlage einer amerikanischen Kunstmusik vorzuschlagen, stieß in konservativen und fortschrittlichen Kreisen gleichermaßen auf entschiedene Ablehnung. « (zit. ). Die Dvořák-Kontroverse wurde auch zum Anstoß verstärkter Anstrengungen zur Entwicklung einer eigenen amerikanischen Musiksprache. Es war Charles Ives, der ebenso konsequent wie radikal daran arbeitete, die Heterogenität der amerikanischen Musik – also die Vielzahl ihrer ethnischen und sozialen Dialekte – zur Grundlage eines ganzen Werkkonzepts zu erheben.

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