Open Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Equipment, Diagnosis by L. Crooks, L. Kaufman, N. Hylton (auth.), Dr. D. H. W.

By L. Crooks, L. Kaufman, N. Hylton (auth.), Dr. D. H. W. Grönemeyer, Professor Robert B. Lufkin M.D. (eds.)

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Ortendahl DA, Hylton NM, Kaufman L, Watts JC, Crooks LE, Mills CM, Stark D (1984) Analytical tools for MRI. Radiology 153:479 3. Rothschild PA, Schulz M, Kramer DM, Kaufman L (199) Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of multiple sclerosis plaques imaged with two-dimensional and three-dimensional Fourier transform techniques at low and mid field strengths. J Neuroimaging 1:79 4. Kramer DM, Li A, Kaufman L, Hake K (1989) Two-gradient echo 2-DFT multi-section imaging: comparison with spin echo imaging.

SlIce#1 i Slice#2 i 30 20 40 50 Milliseconds SlIce#3 Fig. 7. A pulse timing diagram showing the strengths and timing of transmitted RF excitations, gradients Gx , Gy and Gz, and signal reception for a typical spin-echo data acquisition. In this example data collection is complete in less Slice#4 ............... Slice#S ................................. Slice#6 Slice#7 .. ... , .. , .. , , Slice#S Slicets Slice#10 than SO ms. This allows excitation and data acquisition to be performed at nine other slice locations before the interval between excitations, TR=500 ms elapses for slice number 1 15 16 L.

Thus below a certain angle Tl effects can actually result in a reversal of contrast (Fig. 2B). Lowering the angle at fixed TR has the same effect as lengthening TR for a 90° angle. Unfortunately, this cannot be carried to extremes. This process is more effective the larger the ratio TRI Tl. Thus from a practical point of view it is only achievable for short Tl values, where it is highly effective. Furthermore, to obtain the desired contrast level it is desirable to operate with a relatively long TE, to take advantage of T2 effects.

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