By L. Crooks, L. Kaufman, N. Hylton (auth.), Dr. D. H. W. Grönemeyer, Professor Robert B. Lufkin M.D. (eds.)
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Extra info for Open Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Equipment, Diagnosis and Interventional Procedures
Ortendahl DA, Hylton NM, Kaufman L, Watts JC, Crooks LE, Mills CM, Stark D (1984) Analytical tools for MRI. Radiology 153:479 3. Rothschild PA, Schulz M, Kramer DM, Kaufman L (199) Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of multiple sclerosis plaques imaged with two-dimensional and three-dimensional Fourier transform techniques at low and mid field strengths. J Neuroimaging 1:79 4. Kramer DM, Li A, Kaufman L, Hake K (1989) Two-gradient echo 2-DFT multi-section imaging: comparison with spin echo imaging.
SlIce#1 i Slice#2 i 30 20 40 50 Milliseconds SlIce#3 Fig. 7. A pulse timing diagram showing the strengths and timing of transmitted RF excitations, gradients Gx , Gy and Gz, and signal reception for a typical spin-echo data acquisition. In this example data collection is complete in less Slice#4 ............... Slice#S ................................. Slice#6 Slice#7 .. ... , .. , .. , , Slice#S Slicets Slice#10 than SO ms. This allows excitation and data acquisition to be performed at nine other slice locations before the interval between excitations, TR=500 ms elapses for slice number 1 15 16 L.
Thus below a certain angle Tl effects can actually result in a reversal of contrast (Fig. 2B). Lowering the angle at fixed TR has the same effect as lengthening TR for a 90° angle. Unfortunately, this cannot be carried to extremes. This process is more effective the larger the ratio TRI Tl. Thus from a practical point of view it is only achievable for short Tl values, where it is highly effective. Furthermore, to obtain the desired contrast level it is desirable to operate with a relatively long TE, to take advantage of T2 effects.