Noninvasive Vascular Diagnosis by Anne M. Jones (auth.), Ali F. AbuRahma MD, RVT, John J.

By Anne M. Jones (auth.), Ali F. AbuRahma MD, RVT, John J. Bergan MD (eds.)

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With algebra, you can demonstrate that these are the same. The difference in impedance between the superficial tissue and the deep tissue at an interface determines the strength of the reflector and therefore is proportional to the amplitude of the ultrasound echo: R = (Z2 - Z)/(Z2 + Z). If the difference between the impedances is greater, then the reflection is greater. The pulse energy is proportional to the square of the amplitude, so the energy reflected is equal to R2. 5 shows that the reflected energy from an ultrasound pulse as it crosses an interface between two soft tissues is usually less than 1%.

In the simplest view, the ultrasound beam pattern is a straight line that extends into tissue along the axis of the ultrasound transducer. If the ultrasound transducer is a disk, the beam pattern is a line through the center of the disk perpendicular to the surface. In a slightly more complex view (Fig. 7), the ultrasound beam pattern is a cylinder extending from the face of the transducer. Because ultrasound is a wave, the shape of the ultrasound beam pattern includes diffraction effects that alter the shape of the beam pattern near the transducer !

Focusing --«( = (W/2)/A • Jet(! G 'I!! ---I __ ~~~~ --! p-- _! 7. lncreasingly sophisticated concepts of ultrasound beam patterns. From left to right thin beam pattern, collimated beam pattern, beam pattern with Fraunhofer zone, beam pattern with transition zone natural focus and Fraunhofer zone, beam pattern with Fresnel zone, transition zone natural focus, Fraunhofer zone and first-order sidelobes. 35 Basic Physics separate is the resolution. A smaller number is better. The lateral resolution is A = 2 FA/W.

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