New ingredients in food processing: biochemistry and by G. Linden, Denis Lorient

By G. Linden, Denis Lorient

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The molecules have different properties (energy, state of unfolding or association) from those of the continuous phase since they are a long way from the interface. 2 shows that for a substance whose molecular volume is 30 cm3/mol, the proportion of molecules located on the surface of aggregates increases rapidly when the diameter becomes less than 1 mm (for example one molecule out of four is on the surface for particles of 10 nm diameter). 01 to 1 mm. This is precisely the case in food systems that contain dispersed phases such as emulsions (liquid in liquid), foams (gas in liquid), suspensions and aggregates (solids in liquids) or poorly hydrated products (liquids in solids).

13 Junction point (plateau border) of three bubbles where a depression is causing drainage. • Emulsifying activity: defined as the area of the interface stabilised by a given concentration of emulsifier (m2/g); this is measured using a turbidimetric method where it is possible to link the interfacial area with the actual size of the droplets in relation to the diffusion of light caused by the particles in suspension. • Stability of the emulsion: defined as the capacity of the emulsion to retain its structure over time, its measurement can be direct (development of the size of the droplets over time evaluated by a lightscattering instrument) or indirect (development of quantities of oil or aqueous phase separated after a destabilisation treatment (centrifuging, heating).

2 Different forms of protein extracts. ). The charge depends on the pHi of the protein and the pH of the medium (amphoteric nature). ) to be extracted and selectively fractionated. Specific binding on a medium may also involve using specific affinities for enzyme substrates, or for antigens. Types of extract obtained Depending on its intended end-use or the extraction methods used, the protein concentration of the finished product can vary from between 15 and 20% (mechanically separated meats) up to 90% (soya isolates, caseinates).

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