Modern Methods in Protein Nutrition and Metabolism by Steven Nissen

By Steven Nissen

This paintings deals assurance of recent tools in protein meals and metabolism. one of the themes addressed are in vivo and in vitro tools for measuring protein synthesis and proteolysis, tools for estimating amino acid requisites in animals and people and digestion thoughts.

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1975), in which duplicate samples of cooked experimental diet from each experimental period were mixed in a blender and dried to constant weight so that aliquots could be used for N estimation; such a method is a logical compromise between the ideal and the expedient if daily N intake measurements are impossible. Using formula feedings of constant liquid diets rather than experimental diets consisting of ordinary foods helps eliminate many daily variations of diet composition and may decrease the number of analytical replications and amount of diet processing needed during a balance study (Beisel, 1979).

3. Nutritional Adaptation The ability of the human body to adapt to a range of protein intakes has seemed to be an advantage of mankind, but such adaptation additionally complicates efforts to quantify protein requirements by the N balance method (Albanese, 1959). Nutritional adaptation has been defined as "a process by which a new or different steady state is reached in response to a change or difference in the intake of food and nutrients" (World Health Organization, 1985); adaptation by human beings to low protein intakes is of particular interest from both theoretical and practical viewpoints, because the expla­ nation of adaptation includes concepts such as labile protein and protein requirements (Stephen and Waterlow, 1968).

1984) reported when using this method was insensible evaporative losses during feedings. , 1984). One approach to this problem is to take samples of the breastmilk before, during, and after each feeding (Meurling et al, 1981). Another method (Butte et al, 1984) is to use a breast pump to empty one breast of its milk while the infant feeds at the contralateral breast. 4. Nitrogen Determination The familiar Kjeldahl procedure for N determination was originally de­ scribed in 1 8 8 3 , and because modified versions of this method are still in common use (Munro and Fleck, 1969), one of the more reassuring aspects of performing N balance studies is the actual chemical analysis of N.

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