Microbial Toxins, Vol. 4: Bacterial Endotoxins by Samuel J. Ajl

By Samuel J. Ajl

Microbial pollutants, quantity IV: Bacterial Endotoxins covers a basic creation of bacterial endotoxins, in addition to examine relating constitution (both morphological and physical), chemistry, immunology, biosynthesis, and genetics of bacterial endotoxins. The publication describes the final features of bacterial endotoxins; the anatomy and chemistry of Gram-negative mobile envelopes; and the actual constitution of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. The textual content additionally discusses the isolation and chemical and immunological characterization of bacterial lipopolysaccharides; the chemistry of the original carbohydrates of bacterial lipopolysaccharides; and the relation of bacteriophage attachment to lipopolysaccharide constitution. The chemical and organic heterogeneity of endotoxins, in addition to the biosynthesis of the middle quarter of lipopolysaccharide also are thought of. The e-book extra tackles the biosynthesis of O-antigens and the genetic points of biosynthesis and constitution of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide. Microbiologists, biochemists, bacteriologists, immunologists, and folks thinking about biochemical examine will locate the publication important.

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T h e typical adjuvant effect is illustrated in Fig. , 1968a). ^ A r s . - E A + Se 320 I60r 80l 40 20 10 - Ars. - E A / 5 - / <5 L^"" 8 10 16 16 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 35 Day F I G . 2 . Enhancement of antibody response by endotoxin. G e o m e t r i c mean of hemagglutination titers specific for the arsanilic acid hapten in rabbits inoculated intravenously on day 0 with (A) arsanilic acid conjugated to egg albumin ( A r s . - E A ) plus 10 /xg Salmonella entérinais endotoxin in saline ( A r s . - E A + Se) and (B) A r s .

I N D U C E D RESISTANCE TO ENDOTOXINS (TOLERANCE) A n i m a l s b e c o m e resistant to e n d o t o x i n following e x p o s u r e to sublethal quantities. This p h e n o m e n o n is also k n o w n as t o l e r a n c e , u n r e s p o n s i v e ness, refractoriness, and immunity. , 1969; G r e i s m a n and Y o u n g , 1969). T h e fact that substantial resistance d e v e l o p s overnight after e x p o s u r e to a single small d o s e of e n d o t o x i n militates against use of the t e r m " i m m u n i t y .

1967). 22. OTHER EFFECTS T h i s catalogue is not complete. T h e r e are many isolated r e p o r t s of a p parently distinctive reactions to endotoxin and C h a p t e r 6 of V o l u m e V of this treatise will be devoted to analysis of metabolic changes p r o d u c e d by endotoxin. W e h a v e a t t e m p t e d to indicate the great range of host reactions to endotoxin, in part, p e r h a p s , by w ay of explaining the long fascination of biologists and chemists with this intractable class of materials.

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