By Zhixin Xie, Gengxiang Jia, Arnab Ghosh (auth.), Ramanjulu Sunkar (eds.)
Precise rules of gene expression in either time and area is key to plant development, improvement and edition to biotic and abiotic rigidity stipulations. this is often completed by means of a number of mechanisms, with possibly an important regulate being exerted on the point of transcription. even though, with the hot discovery of microRNAs one other ubiquitous mode of gene law that happens on the post-transcriptional point has been pointed out. MicroRNAs can silence gene expression by means of concentrating on complementary or in part complementary mRNAs for degradation or translational inhibition. fresh reports have published that microRNAs play basic roles in plant development and improvement, in addition to in variation to biotic and abiotic stresses. This publication highlights the jobs of person miRNAs that keep an eye on and keep an eye on various facets of plant processes.
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Extra resources for MicroRNAs in Plant Development and Stress Responses
2009). 2 Regulation of TCP Transcription Factors by miR319 The TCPs are a plant-specific transcription factor family; still, the TCP domain codes a motif that is predicted to fold into a basic helix-loop-helix structure known from DNA-binding domains of both plant and animal transcription factors (Cubas et al. 1999). The name TCP is adopted from the founding family members Teosinte Branched 1 (TB1) from maize, the Antirrhinum gene Cycloidea (CYC), and the two PCNA promoter binding factors PCF1 and PCF2 from rice [reviewed in (Cubas et al.
For all alleles, the insertion site was determined to be on chromosome IV between the protein-coding genes At4g23710 (coding for vacuolar synthase subunit G2) and At4g23720 (coding for a protein of unknown function). 6 kb in the intergenic region located between these two genes, where no open reading frame could be found, suggesting that JAW might be a nonprotein-coding gene (Weigel et al. 2000). Microarray experiments comparing wild type with jaw-D transcriptomes showed that a group of five TCP transcription factors was significantly downregulated in the jaw-D mutant.
One exception is miR319a, which was isolated during an activation tagging experiment in which transgenic Arabidopsis plants were screened for morphological changes (Weigel et al. 2000). In this type of screen, plants are transformed with a modified T-DNA vector containing a viral enhancer cassette derived from the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The T-DNA harboring the viral enhancers is integrated randomly into the Arabidopsis genome causing the transcriptional activation of nearby genes and generating dominant gain-of-function mutations (Weigel et al.