Metallomesogens: synthesis, properties, and applications by Sven T. Lagerwall

By Sven T. Lagerwall

Examine on metal-containing liquid crystals is a speedily increasing, multidisciplinary box with new fabrics constantly being synthesized and novel purposes being constructed. 'Metallomesogens' is the 1st entire survey of the sector, introducing the reader to: * fabrics layout * synthesis * actual houses * rising purposes conscientiously chosen references around off this well-organized compendium. it truly is an fundamental consultant to skilled researchers in coordination and organometallic chemistry in addition to in liquid-crystal and fabrics technology. novices and graduate scholars also will make the most of this didactically sound creation to the sector.

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Metallomesogens: synthesis, properties, and applications

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Example text

It should be noted from the previous figure that a piezoelectric material has the same shape as the P - E curve of a normal dielectric, but it often shows paraelectric behavior with a large and even diverging susceptibility. Next, the contrasting, very strongly nonlinear response of a ferroelectric is shown in Fig. 5. The two stable states (+ P , - P ) at zero field are the most characteristic feature of this hysteresis curve, which also illustrates the threshold (coercive force) that the external field has to overcome in order to flip over from one state to the other.

We note the triple point Tt at which all three phases coexist, and equilibrium lines between gas-liquid, gas-solid, and liquid-solid. When we cross such a line a phase transition takes place, for instance the gas condenses to a liquid. This is a discontinuous transition or a transition of first order, recognized by the fact that heat is liberated or absorbed. , ceases to exist. For carbon dioxide this temperature is 31 "C. What it means is that for T > T, you cannot condense carbon dioxide to a liquid form whatever pressure you apply.

When we cross such a line a phase transition takes place, for instance the gas condenses to a liquid. This is a discontinuous transition or a transition of first order, recognized by the fact that heat is liberated or absorbed. , ceases to exist. For carbon dioxide this temperature is 31 "C. What it means is that for T > T, you cannot condense carbon dioxide to a liquid form whatever pressure you apply. But it also means that you can circumvent the critical point, as T, is called, along the trajectory indicated in the figure, and pass from gaseous form to liquid in a continuous way, without going through a phase transition.

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