Mastering Biology by O.F.G. KILGOUR


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4 grouped all plants of 85 em and under as dwarf plants and the remainder (over 85 em in height) were called tall. By this calculation 67 are dwarf (85 em or under in height) and 293- 67 = 226 are tall (over 85 em in height). 4:1 Percentages Percentage value is a part of one hundred expressed in hundredths. 13% are tall plants. Pictorial data display Data can be displayed by the following visual methods: Pie charts Pie charts are circular diagrams cut by radii into segments or sectors (pie slices) illustrating relative magnitudes or frequencies.

1 The leaf is placed on the graph paper and its outline is drawn on the paper. 2 The number of large (1 cm 2 ) squares within the leaf tracing is counted, then every small (1 mm 2 ) square that does not form part of a large em square is counted by the 'gate' method. 3 The leaf area can then be calculated as follows: (i) Total number of large (cm 2 ) squares = X (ii) Total number of small (mm 2 ) squares outside of the large squares = Y (iii) Total area of one leaf surface = X + 1~O cm 2 Since the leaf has two surfaces the total leaf surface area = 2 x X + 1~O cm 2 • Quadrats are wood or metal frames measuring one square metre and are used to mark out areas of ground in ecological studies.

They are neither plants, animals nor fungi and all have genetic material surrounded by a nuclear envelope. They are divided into several phyla. Phylum Rhizopoda Amoeba is a rhizopod. It has pseudopodia (false feet) which are a characteristic of the phylum. 14). Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae) Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra are two examples of organisms in this phylum. Chlamydomonas has a body made up from just one cell. Spirogyra has a body in the form of a thread or filament. This is made from many similar cells joined together.

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