By Ferenc Kovacs, Sandor Simon
This monograph has as its goal to provide a serious survey of the advance of the theories about the essence, the functionality, and the main attribute (determining) good points of language, and to discover and review the intent forces accountable for this improvement. the writer explains typically the revolutionary parts of the theoretical foundations and methodological approaches of other occasions and colleges (trends), and areas them within the procedure which provides the process improvement of linguistic idea as an natural complete. He offers intimately with the overseas (mainly American) and Hungarian monographic courses in response to so-called glossy methodologies and, within the mild of the proof of language, issues out the theoretical (gnoseological, philosophical) mistakes which, after all, are error from the viewpoint of normal linguistics, too. He is determined by a Marxist-based interpretation of the trendy idea of normal and social legislations for the formula of his personal notion of linguistic legislation along with additionally his personal view of linguistics buildings.
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Additional resources for Linguistic Structures and Linguistic Laws
Fo r a certai n resemblanc e t o th e objec t image d i s de manded o f a n imag e . . " 20 I t i s m y judgmen t t h a t b y interpreiin g th e quotaiio n fro m Lenin, Albrecht committed th e sam e mistak e fo r whic h Leni n criticized Helmholtz . A s a matte r o f fact , Helmholtz , b y min gling differen t psychological , gnoseologica l concepts , mad e con cessions t o idealism . H e ddentifie d sensatio n (Empfindung) with concep t (Begriff), mor e precisel y wit h it s vehicle , th e sig n (Zeichen)I I f sensatio n wer e ideniica l wtt h th e iign , the n i t would reall y b e difficul t t o loo k fo r resemblanc e betwee n sensa tion an d th e realit y imaged .
2 The nineteent h century , chiefl y it s secon d half , wa s charac terized b y linguisti c historicism , b y comparativ e linguistics . Th e 2 This is , o f course , no t a "complete " evaluatio n o f th e schoo l o f linguistic psychology , i t i s meant onl y t o hin t a t th e essenc e o f it s theor y of signs . 35 contemporary scienc e o f languag e pai d attentio n onl y t o th e development o f language , to th e productiv e cause s of thi s devel opment. Researche s wer e conducte d fo r th e descriptio n o f onl y the diachroni c features , th e examinatio n o f synchroni c phenom ena wa s neglected .
Th e mos t progressiv e featur e o f thei r theory o f meaning wa s the wa y the y define d th e relation betwee n the sign and th e thing signifie d (reality) . What i s to b e noted her e first o f al l i s Thoma s Aquinas' s sensualism , accordin g t o whic h the ultimat e sourc e o f al l knowledg e i s t o b e foun d i n sensation . Even thoug h thi s standpoin t disregard s th e possibilit y o f con ceptual operation s carrie d ou t independentl y o f sensatio n (an d this is just it s greates t theoretica l defect) , it was in an y cas e goo d for assailing , a s i t were , th e existenc e o f concept s i n tota l inde pendence fro m objectiv e realit y (conceptua l realism) .