By André Vaillant
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Extra resources for Grammaire comparée des langues slaves. Tome V, La syntaxe
The emergence of a new working class not only led to the birth of a strong labour movement that politically challenged the regime; it also showed the inconsistencies and anachronisms of National-Catholicism in 1960s Spain. Social changes produced by industrialization and migration also led to the erosion of the Catholic Church’s support for the regime. The appalling living conditions of the working class made a serious impact on a new generation of young priests preaching in the urban slums. ¹⁶ Moreover, under the auspices of the Second Vatican Council, which called for the basic freedoms of expression and association, the Acción Católica leadership openly criticized Franco’s repressive policies, while many in the Catholic hierarchy began to reconsider their support for the regime.
Internally the slogan became the byword for the endemic problems of the country and even today is used to encapsulate the supposedly chronic ills of Spanish society (Kelly 2000: 30–1). Socio-economic transformation throughout the 1960s also made National-Catholicism obsolete. The economic stagnation of the 1950s had threatened the regime with collapse and Franco was forced to abandon the disastrous autarkic policies and adopt economic liberalism in order to survive. From 1957 onwards, Falangist ministers were sacked in a series of cabinet reshufﬂes and replaced by Opus Dei technocrats, who proceeded to impose a free-market economic model.
38 A Tale of Two Nations (Losada Malvárez 1990: 132). Hence labour battalions, concentration camps, and mass executions of Republican prisoners were conceived of as a means of indoctrinating and ‘disciplining’ the working class and achieving ‘harmony’ between labour and capital. The same ‘educational’ rationale was applied to combat Catalan, Basque, and Galician nationalists. Because they were part of anti-Spain, ‘separatists’ were imprisoned, sent to labour camps, or simply shot. Physical repression was complemented with educational cultural policies that made the use of Castilian in classrooms compulsory, prohibited the use of regional languages in the public sphere, and closely scrutinized Catalan, Basque, and Galician cultural associations.