By Clemente Marconi
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The steelmaking and its consumers have benefited significantly from the various major technological advances of the final thirty years. As their clients develop into ever extra caliber wide awake, despite the fact that, steelmakers needs to proceed their efforts to lessen destructive impurities, reduce in addition to regulate damaging nonmetallic inclusions and attain the optimal casting temperature, content material of alloying parts, and homogeneity.
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Additional resources for Kosmos: The Imagery of the Archaic Greek Temple
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An alternative approach is to apply the concept of historical learning curves by using data for already established technologies that are extrapolated to CO2 capture processes. Experience curves are used to describe cost reduction as a function of cumulative deployment, which for CO2 capture technologies derives from energy scenarios. It should be noted that cost estimates initially often increase rather than decrease when novel technologies move into first use. Based on a scenario that assumes 100 GW of CCS have been deployed the improvement Page | 39 potential through learning effects was analysed (Rubin, 2007).
1 CO2 emissions w/o capture (kg/MWh) 787 845 793 CO2 emissions w/ capture (kg/MWh) 112 141 115 Capital cost w/o capture (USD/kW) 2258 3239 2356 Capital cost w/ capture (USD/kW) 3049 4221 3166 Relative decrease in net efficiency 20% 21% 20% Overnight cost w/o capture (USD/kW) 2462 3702 2586 Overnight cost w/ capture (USD/kW) 3555 5150 3714 LCOE w/o capture (USD/MWh) 74 86 75 LCOE w/ capture (USD/MWh) 103 118 104 Cost of CO 2 avoided (USD/tCO2) 43 45 43 54 64 55 Relative increase in overnight cost 45% 39% 44% Relative increase in LCOE 39% 37% 39% RE‐EVALUATED DATA (2010 USD) Cost of CO 2 avoided vs PC baseline (USD/tCO2) Notes: Data cover only CO 2 capture and compression but not transportation and storage.