By Peter S. Groff
A particular introductory advisor to the wealthy, complicated and various culture of Islamic philosophy.
Islamic Philosophy A-Z includes over 100 concise entries, alphabetically ordered and cross-referenced for simple entry. all of the crucial facets of Islamic philosophy are coated right here: key figures, faculties, suggestions, themes, and matters. Articles at the Peripatetics, Isma'ilis, Illuminationists, Sufis, kalam theologians and later glossy thinkers are supplemented via entries on classical Greek impacts in addition to Jewish philosophers who lived and labored within the Islamic global. Topical entries disguise numerous matters and key positions in the entire significant parts of philosophy, making transparent why the significant difficulties of Islamic philosophy were, and stay, issues of rational disputation.
This ebook will turn out an critical source to somebody who needs to achieve a greater figuring out of this attention-grabbing highbrow tradition.
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Extra info for Islamic Philosophy A-Z
See creation vs. eternity of the world; Ibn Sina; al-Razi (Abu Bakr); science Further reading: al-Biruni 2003–5; Nasr 1964/93; Nasr with Aminrazavi 1999 24 ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY A–Z Brethren of Purity (Ikhwan al-Safa’): Designating themselves with the Qur’anic sobriquet ‘Sleepers in the cave of our father Adam’, the Brethren of Purity were a secretive and mysterious group of philosophers centred on the cosmopolitan city of Basra. Their actual membership is still a matter of dispute, as are their exact religio-political commitments (some scholars believe they were Isma‘ilis).
Similarly, al-Ghazali recontextualizes the question of free will and moral accountability without adequately resolving it. For insofar as every event – human choices and actions included – is the effect of God’s will, human agency seems subsumed if not obliterated by divine omnipotence. Ibn Rushd’s reply to alGhazali pointed towards a purely Aristotelian conception of causality stripped of problematic Neoplatonic innovations, but by then the tide had turned against the philosophers. See Aristotle; free will and predestination; al-Ghazali; Ibn Rushd; Ibn Sina; Neoplatonism; occasionalism; science Further reading: al-Ash‘ari 1953; Fakhry 1958; alGhazali 1997/2000; Goodman 1992a/2006; Ibn Rushd ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY A–Z 27 1954/78; Ibn Sina 2005; Kogan 1985; Marmura 2005; Watt 1948; Wisnovsky 2003 creation vs.
The Kharijites in particular defended this radical stance, which however soon gave way to a range of more moderate, ‘intermediate’ positions. It was not unusual for philosophers to be charged with freethinking or heresy (zandaqa) or, more dramatically, outright unbelief (kufr) by the more traditionalist elements within Islam. The Hanbalites in particular were quite free with such accusations, but perhaps the most important instance of it is associated with the great Ash‘arite theologian and Sufi, al-Ghazali, who in his Incoherence of the Philosophers, charged Peripatetics like al-Farabi and Ibn Sina with seventeen counts of heretical ‘innovation’ (bid‘a) and three counts of unbelief (kufr).