By Rainer Brunner
The current quantity describes some of the levels of the inner-Islamic ecumenical discussion within the twentieth century among Sunnis and Shiites, the short-lived sessions of luck it completed, but additionally the fierce mutual polemics it unavoidably engendered. The exam specializes in the position of the Cairene Azhar collage because the most crucial consultant of Sunni Islam and its kin with Shiite students. specific significance is connected to the interdependency of theological arguments and the political motivations of the interlocutors, and particularly to the importance of Islamic ecumenism for Egyptian overseas coverage within the Fifties. even supposing the most a part of the research is limited to the time ahead of 1979, in an epilogue the process occasions is until eventually most modern advancements.
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Extra resources for Islamic Ecumenism In The 20th Century: The Azhar And Shiism Between Rapprochement And Restraint (Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia)
Morton, London 1993, 20, 24, 41, 52. 11 The Kitàb al-ﬁtan wa-l-mi˙an forms vols. 28–34 of the modern printed edition, Beirut 31983; with regard to the question of viliﬁcation in particular, cf. H. ; on the Bi˙àr, cf. Dharì'a III/16–25; GAL SII/572–74, EIr IV/90–93 (E. -H. H. ). D. 28 chapter one As a corollary, the Shiite 'ulamà" developed into a class that may justiﬁably be designated as a clergy, at least far more so than among the Sunnis. This evolution culminated in the eighteenth century in the ﬁnal triumph of the so-called Ußùlì school.
Zur Ritualisierung der Straßenkämpfe im Iran”, in: K. H. ): Religion und Politik im Iran, Frankfurt 1981, 217–56; Elias Canetti also emphasizes the relevance of the Mu˙arram celebrations for the impact of Shiism on the masses: Masse und Macht, Frankfurt 1992 (11960), 162–72. 75 Ende: “The Flagellations of Mu˙arram”, passim; Mervin: Un réformisme chiite, 229–74. 76 A partial attempt to limit these practices was undertaken by the Iranian government when it prohibited ritual self-mutilations in 1994; cf.
Suﬃce it to give only one example, though one of the most important in Muslim heresiography. At about the same time Ibn Ba††ù†a was travelling what was to him the known world, two outstanding representatives of Islamic intellectual history aimed vehement polemics at each other. Jamàl al-Dìn al-Óasan b. 3 His no less scholarly opponent, Taqì al-Dìn A˙mad b. 1 Ri˙lat Ibn Ba††ù†a, ed. R. ); for a chronological arrangement, see I. ; regarding the term ràﬁ∂ites, see above, p. 18 note 67. 2 Some examples are quoted in T.