By Paul J. Fairchild
Immunological Tolerance: equipment and Protocols is a complete advisor to the options at the moment used for culturing and characterising the mobilephone varieties answerable for implementing self-tolerance and the experimental types hired to check their functionality either in vitro and in vivo.
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Extra resources for Immunological Tolerance: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology Vol 380)
Indeed, in early experiments designed to induce autoimmune disease, gross disturbance of the T-cell compartment (for example, via adult thymectomy combined with irradiation, treatment with anti-lymphocyte globulin, or use of cyclophosphamide) was necessary (reviewed in ref. 1). Models in which gross disturbance of the T-cell compartment is required usually induce a state of CD4+ T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, it was by studying one of these lymphopenic models that Sakaguchi first realized the importance of CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells (Treg) in maintaining self-tolerance (95).
Conversely, administration of mobilized stem cell preparations containing higher numbers of plasmacytoid preDCs was associated with lower risk of graft-vs-host disease in the posttransplant period (91). In addition, two recently described mouse DC subsets can regulate ongoing T cell responses via production of IL-10. The first is a CD11clowCD11b+CD45RB+ subset of regulatory DCs (DCreg) with plasmacytoid morphology, present in normal spleen and LN and enriched in IL-10 transgenic or Leishmania-infected mice (92,93).
By analogy to the in vitro studies, DCs with “immature” and “mature” phenotype have been identified in vivo and it has been suggested that they are also linked by a precursor–product relationship. Thus BM-derived DC precursors that migrate through blood to peripheral tissues are believed to give rise to immature DCs, which then move to the draining lymph nodes (LN) after antigen/pathogen capture. This migration is chemokine-driven and therefore associated with changes in chemokine receptor expression, as well as maturation en route (4).