Human Biology (Zambak) by Abdurrahman ELMA, Osman ARPACI, Musa ÖZET

By Abdurrahman ELMA, Osman ARPACI, Musa ÖZET

Bankruptcy 1: easy innovations of
Anatomy and Physiology
Body association of Organisms . . . . . . . . . . .6
1. Atoms - Molecules - Compounds . . . . .6
2. Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
3. Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
4. Organs And structures . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Human body structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
1. physique Cavities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2. Fluids Of The physique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
3. Membranes of the physique . . . . . . . . . . .9
4. Homeostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Chapter 2: anxious System
The worried approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
1. association of the anxious process . .17
2. The Human fearful approach . . . . . . .22
Chapter three: Senses
Sensory Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Receptors And Sensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
The Human Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
1. The constitution of the attention sphere . . . . .39
2. exterior constructions of the attention . . . . . .41
3. visible strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
4. Eye Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
The Ears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
1. The constitution of the Ears . . . . . . . . . .45
2. listening to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
1. skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
2. epidermis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
3. Accesory buildings of the outside . . . . .54
4. contact Receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Smell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
1. Mechanism of Smelling . . . . . . . . . . .58
Taste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
1. The functionality of the tongue . . . . . . . .61
Chapter four: Endocrine System
Endocrine procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
1. Hormones in response to
Their Chemical constitution . . . . . . . . .64
2. goal Organs of Hormones . . . . . . . .65
3. The rules of Hormone Secretion 66
The Human Endocrine process . . . . . . . . . . .67
1. Endocrine Glands
in the Human physique . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Chapter five: Locomotion Systems
Locomotion platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Human Skeletal procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
1. Bone Formation and
Its legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
2. sorts of Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
3. Bone development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
4. components of the Human Skeleton . . . . . . .90
5. Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Muscles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
1. muscular tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
2. The Muscular approach
of Vertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Chapter 6: Circulatory System
Circulatory procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
The Human Circulatory approach . . . . . . . . . .112
1. center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
2. Blood Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
3. Blood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Immunology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
1. Organs Of The Immune procedure . . . .135
2. Acquisition of Immunity . . . . . . . . . .137
3. forms of Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
4. hypersensitive reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
5. Immunologic Tolerance . . . . . . . . . .144
6. Vaccines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
7. Serum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Chapter 7: breathing System
Respiratory structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
1. The Human respiration process . . . .150
Chapter eight: Digestive System
Nutrients and The Digestive method . . . . . .164
1. Digestive platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
The Human Digestive approach . . . . . . . . . . .166
1. Organs of the Digestive approach . . . .167
2. Digestive Secretions . . . . . . . . . . . .173
3. The Digestion of meals . . . . . . . . . . .179
4. Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
1. Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
2. Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
3. Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
4. supplements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
5. Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
6. Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Chapter nine: Excretory System
Excretory method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
1. Excretory ingredients . . . . . . . . . . .196
2. The Human Excretory method . . . . .197
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209

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44 THE EARS The ears, responsible for both hearing and maintaining equilibrium of balance, are composed of the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. They are extremely sensitive to variations in sound and gravity. Furthermore, they are closely connected to the brain. The ear converts signals carried by sound waves into nerve impulses that it sends to the brain. The ear detect frequencies from 20 Hz (a bee buzzing) to about 18,000 Hz (a very high-pitched whistle) 1. The Structure of the Ears Two important sensory functions are accomplished by the ears: hearing and balance.

Non conditional reflexes (knee-jerk and withdrawal reflexes) are inherited, while conditional reflexes are nonhereditary and have a great importance in human physiology. Simple reflexes and withdrawal reflexes are the basic responses of the body and no physiological difference exists between conditional and nonconditional reflexes. Conditioning of strong inherited reflexes presents great difficulties. Conditioning of weak temporary reflexes, however, is easy. Conditional reflexes are nonhereditary and have a great importance in human physiology.

Along the length of the basilar membrane, which forms the lower wall of the cochlear canal, are little hair cells whose cilia are embedded within a gelatinous material, called the tectorial mebrane. The hair cells of the cochlear canal, called the organ of Corti, synapse with nerve fibers of the cochlear (auditory ) nerve. The cochlear nerve generates nerve impulses that go to the brain stem and finally to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum, where they are interpreted as sound. There are approximately 20-40 thousand hairs on the free ends of the organ of Corti.

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