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Extra resources for Hormones 2nd ed
F. Goldberger and K. R. ), Vol. 3A, p. 222. Plenum, New York. mone is normally (in the absence of an endocrine disease related to h o r m o n e secretion) strictly related to the organism's perceived " n e e d " for the biological response(s) generated by the h o r m o n e in question. The " n e e d " for any h o r m o n e will be determined by the physiological set point for that endocrine system. Thus, a characteristic feature of most endocrine systems is the existence of a feedback loop that limits or regulates the secretion of the hormonal messenger.
Also, the low Kd value is a testament to the three-dimensional organization of the ligand-binding domain, which very effectively interacts to "capture" the ligand. These interactions are generally marked by a high degree of specificity Hormones acting via a cGMP system Hormones acting via IP3 pathway Hormones acting via ion channels Atrial natriuretic hormone ACTH Angiotensin II /III Cholecystokinin EGF Epinephrine GnRH Histamine (HI) NGF Norepinephrine (c~1 adrenergic) PGF Thromboxanes TRH TSH Vasopressin VIP Acetylcholine Nicotinic receptor (Na§ channel) Nitric oxide (NO) (Ca 2+ channel) so that both parameters describe interactions of a high order, indicating the uniqueness of receptors and the selectivity of signal reception.
The fate of/3- and ~/-subunits in these dissociation reactions is not yet known. Abbreviations: Gas,stimulatory hormone receptor, G~i, inhibitory hormone receptor. tive cooperativity. In the absence of cooperativity, the population of the receptor's hormone-binding sites behaves identically and independently, but in the instance of cooperativity (either positive or negative), the properties of the ligand domain change as the level of receptor occupancy or receptor concentration changes (Figure 1-33A).