By Timothy Garton Ash
The Nineteen Nineties. a unprecedented decade in Europe. At its starting, the previous order collapsed in addition to the Berlin Wall. every thing appeared attainable. each person hailed a courageous new Europe. yet nobody knew what this new Europe could seem like. Now we all know. so much of Western Europe has embarked on the unheard of gamble of economic union, even though Britain stands apart. Germany, peacefully united, with its capital in Berlin, is back the main robust state in Europe. The relevant Europeans--Poles, Czechs, Hungarians--have made profitable transitions from communism to capitalism and feature joined NATO. yet farther east and south, within the territories of the previous Soviet Union and the previous Yugoslavia, the continent has descended right into a bloody swamp of poverty, corruption, criminal activity, battle, and bestial atrocities reminiscent of we by no means notion will be visible back in Europe.
Timothy Garton Ash chronicles this formative decade via a glittering selection of essays, sketches, and dispatches written as heritage used to be being made. He joins the East Germans for his or her decisive vote for unification and visits their former chief in legal. He accompanies the Poles on their roller-coaster journey from dictatorship to democracy. He uncovers the reasons for financial union in Paris and Bonn. He walks in mass demonstrations in Belgrade and travels during the killing fields of Kosovo. sometimes, he even turns into an actor in a drama he describes: debating Germany with Margaret Thatcher or the function of the highbrow with Václav Havel in Prague. starting from Vienna to Saint Petersburg, from Britain to Ruthenia, Garton Ash displays on how "the unmarried nice conflict" of the chilly struggle has been changed via many smaller ones. And he asks what half the USA nonetheless has to play. occasionally he's taking an eagle's-eye view, contemplating the current try to unite Europe opposed to the historical past of 1000 years of such efforts. yet frequently he swoops to grab one telling human tale: that of a wiry previous farmer in Croatia, a newspaper editor in Warsaw, or a sour, attractive survivor from Sarajevo.
His eye is sharp and ironic yet continually compassionate. background of the current keeps the paintings that Garton Ash started together with his trilogy of books approximately principal Europe within the Nineteen Eighties, combining the crafts of journalism and heritage. In his advent, he argues that we should always no longer wait till the data are opened earlier than commencing to write the heritage of our personal occasions. Then he indicates the way it might be performed.
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Extra resources for History of the Present: Essays, Sketches and Dispatches from Europe in the 1990s
The survey questions can be classified into four categories. The first group of questionnaire items includes a series of questions on support that are regularly asked in Eurobarometer surveys and that have become standard indicators in European attitude and election research. As discussed in Chapter 1 Section 1, there is little agreement in the literature about the conceptual meaning of these items. e. 6 The second group of questions is associated with period-specific developments in European integration, namely the Treaty of the European Union (Maastricht Treaty) and the anticipated extension of the Union with Austria, Sweden and Finland in 1995.
The underlying question of this analytical step is which attitudes relate to objects that are closely linked in the mind of the individual and therefore form a common attitude dimension. It makes use of information about one set the elements (stimuli) in order to assess the proximity between them. The method we therefore apply is (confirmative) factor analysis. The assessment of the structure underlying European attitudes proceeds in three steps. The first step is to demarcate from a large number of survey items the ones that should be contained in our analyses, and those that can be disregarded.
E. whether sets of items can be thought to measure the same underlying attitude. This task can be fruitfully fulfilled by means of Mokken scales. The analysis results in a number of latent traits, each of which can be measured by a score derived from the responses to a subset of items. This is presented in Chapter 3 Section 2. The third step consists of determining the relationships between the latent traits that were discovered in the second step. The fact that a set of items can be distinguished in two subsets, each measuring a different latent trait, does not imply that the two subsets are orthogonal.