By George R. Zug;Laurie J. Vitt;Janalee P. Caldwell
It's a nice herp booklet, with plenty of info. yet i assume there are more recent model of it at the market...
Read or Download Herpetology, Second Edition: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles PDF
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Additional info for Herpetology, Second Edition: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles
The first modifications were probably an increase in size and internal partitioning (Perry, 1998). The latter is commonly associated with increased vascularization. Once again, these modifications apparently occurred in the protoamniotes. When and where they occurred can be partially identified by examining rib structure and the appearance of a complete rib cage. 9 Distribution of the occurrence of viviparity in extant tetrapod groups. This distribution of egg retention based on extant species does not permit the identification of the condition in basal amniotes.
Anthracosaurs and early amniotes lacked otic notches, denoting the absence of eardrums. Although not deaf, they were certainly insensitive to high-frequency sounds. It is doubtful that their olfactory sense was as limited. Well-developed nasal passages in fossils and the presence of highly developed olfactory organs in living reptiles indicate that this sense was well developed in the earliest amniotes. Nasal passages contained conchae, which may have aided in the reduction of water loss. Eyes were also likely well developed at this stage, for vision is extremely important in foraging and avoiding predators in an aerial environment.
Therefore, our classification should reflect the evolutionary history of organisms as closely as possible. Since we can never know the actual evolutionary history of a group, our classifications are inferences and estimates of phylogeny and will change as our knowledge of a group's relationships improves. Our classifications are schemes for naming and categorizing like organisms into the same groups. Each name identifies an organism or group of organisms and provides an index to information associated with that name.