Heavily Modified Water Bodies: Synthesis of 34 Case Studies by Eleftheria Kampa, Wenke Hansen

By Eleftheria Kampa, Wenke Hansen

Disclaimer The paintings mentioned during this ebook was once performed ahead of the booklet of the ultimate advice record on seriously converted and synthetic Water our bodies of the Water Framework Directive universal Implementation approach. the ecu fee, the venture donors, the venture managers, the operating crew on seriously changed Water our bodies of the typical Implementation technique and the authors don't inevitably propose all techniques that have been taken within the case experiences which are mentioned. approximately Ecologic Ecologic, Institute for overseas and eu Environmental coverage, is a personal not-for-profit imagine tank for utilized environmental study, coverage research and c- sultancy with workplaces in Berlin and Brussels. An self sufficient, non-partisan physique, Ecologic is devoted to bringing clean rules to environmental rules and sustainable improvement. Ecologic’s paintings programme makes a speciality of acquiring useful effects. It c- ers the whole spectrum of environmental matters and comprises the combination of en- ronmental issues into different coverage fields. Ecologic is the German companion within the community of Institutes for ecu Envir- psychological coverage. based in 1995, Ecologic has a multi-disciplinary employees that comes with legal professionals, negotiators, social and ordinary scientists, economists, technologists, and pl- ners. With a spotlight on Europe and North the USA, Ecologic’s actions conceal a transforming into geographical zone and contain policy-makers, enterprise leaders, technical specialists and representatives of civil society businesses. Ecologic is formally known as being within the public curiosity. Donations to Ecologic are tax-deductible.

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G. salinity, mixing regime and tidal range in the case of the Haringvliet Estuary (NL)), ecological units (tidal freshwater marsh, intertidal mudflats) as well as according to pressures and impacts (the latter especially in the case of the Forth Estuary (UK)). In the Forth Estuary, the main criteria for water body identification were differences in the types and intensities of human pressures and impacts, backed by differences in morphology and physical conditions such as salinity. 3 (see Annex II).

However, it is recognised that in some regions where there are many small water bodies, this general approach will need to be adapted. Having said that, it may be appropriate to aggregate water bodies into groups for certain purposes in order to avoid unnecessary administrative burden”. 2. Differentiation of AWB and HMWB According to the Dutch Case Studies In the Netherlands, numerous lakes are created by human activity. The Veluwerandmeren is the product of the construction of dikes and the reclamation of a polder, which has turned a former estuary into a freshwater lake chain.

4. Dender River (B). This case study covered the lowland Dender River as well as its tributaries, Mark and Bellebeek. The Dender has a large catchment, which is part of the catchment area of the Schelde River. The Dender is a border-crossing river between the region of Flanders and Walloon in Belgium; therefore, collaboration between the regions is required. The case study area is influenced by different types of specified uses such as flood protection, navigation, urbanisation and agriculture as well as various physical alterations such as canalisation, straightening and dams.

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