By Sam Goldstein, Dana Princiotta, Jack A. Naglieri
Intelligence has been outlined in numerous methods, together with the talents for summary concept, knowing, verbal exchange, reasoning, studying, making plans, emotion and challenge fixing. even though most generally studied in people, clever habit has been saw in animals and vegetation. No consensus approximately intelligence has been reached via students, even though quite a few definitions and hypotheses were provided in past times three hundred years. during this groundbreaking textual content, intelligence is approached from an evolutionary foundation. It starts off with an outline of why intelligence can have developed and the forces that experience pushed highbrow improvement, fairly within the human species. the quantity offers an outline of intelligence in different species, the origins of intelligence within the human species and a historic stopover at of intelligence theories and evaluate equipment in the past a hundred thirty years. this is often the 1st and simply quantity dedicated to and treating intelligence from an evolutionary perspective.
Read Online or Download Handbook of Intelligence: Evolutionary Theory, Historical Perspective, and Current Concepts PDF
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Extra resources for Handbook of Intelligence: Evolutionary Theory, Historical Perspective, and Current Concepts
In D. F. Hay & A. ), Precursors and causes of development and psychopathology. Chichester: Wiley. Galef, B. , Jr. (1988). Imitation in animals: History, deﬁnition, and interpretation of data from the psychological laboratory. In T. R. Zentall & B. G. Galef Jr. ), Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives (pp. 3–28). Hillsdale: Erlbaum. Gallup, G. G. (1970). Chimpanzees self-recognition. Science, 167, 86–87. Gallup, G. , & Suarez, S. D. (1991). Social responding to mirrors in rhesus monkeys: Effects of temporary 24 mirror removal.
Sherburne, L. , Zentall, T. , & Kaiser, D. H. (1998). Timing in pigeons: The choose-short effect may result from “confusion” between delay and intertrial intervals. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 516–522. Singer, R. , Abroms, B. , & Zentall, T. R. (2007). Formation of a simple cognitive map by rats. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 19, 417–425. Singer, R. , & Zentall, T. R. (2007). ’ and can report peck location when unexpectedly asked. Learning & Behavior, 35, 184–189. Slotnick, B.
Do animals need to justify to themselves why they worked harder for one signal than the other? Alternatively, we have suggested that this choice behavior results from the contrast between the relatively negative emotional state of the organism at the end of the effort and upon presentation of the signal (Zentall and Singer 2007). That difference would be greater when more effort was involved. Thus, the subjective value of the signal for reinforcement might be judged to be greater. Contrast provides a more parsimonious account of the pigeons’ choice behavior.