By R. Harrison, N. D. Mortimer, O. B. Smarason
Up to now all books on geothermics have emphasised its use for producing electrical energy, with purposes of decrease grade assets for direct heating meriting just a short bankruptcy. This e-book brings jointly examine from a number of medical journals and 'grey' literature to supply the 1st complete textual content on geothermal heating. Economics shape a huge a part of the e-book. It presents a step-by-step research of a few of the ways that thermal waters can be utilized to supply house heating and of the benefits and drawbacks of alternative techniques. the ultimate component of the booklet presents case reviews of 31 geothermal heating schemes in France, united states and Iceland.
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Extra info for Geothermal Heating. A Handbook of Engineering Economics
6. Strictly, in cases such as this, temperature data averaged over periods of approximately 1 hour should be used, the temperature oscillations should be reduced using the thermal amplitude reduction and also the phase of fluctuations should be taken into account. Using an average demand temperature T the time lags will have no effect upon the formulation of the demand intensity duration curve. 6 Effect of building fabric on fluctuating heating demands. T(t') shows fluctuations in external temperature.
In a hypothetical situation of perfect heat transfer, which would occur with very large heat transfer surfaces or when one flow is very much smaller than the other, the fluid stream with the smallest flow, M , would undergo the maximum possible temperature change. This is the temperature difference between the inlets, Thi - T .. 2) actual rate of heat transfer (W) heat exchanger effectiveness smaller of the thermal capacities of the flows (W/°C) This is assuming that the volumes of both sides of the heat exchanger are equal and that the velocity of the lower flow stream is lower than velocity of the higher.
16) demand intensity (°C) Demand intensity varies in a way which is characteristic of the climate at the location and which is independent of the nature of the application. It is possible to determine a temperature duration curve in a way which is entirely analogous to that of determining the load duration curve described above The temperature range is divided into a number of equal intervals. External temperatures, averaged over some characteristic period, are sorted into the intervals. The time durations for which the temperature falls within each interval are calculated by counting the occurrence of each temperature.