Author note: Philippe Huneman (Editor), Frédéric Bouchard (Editor)
Our intuitive assumption that simply organisms are the genuine members within the wildlife is at odds with advancements in mobile biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and different fields. even supposing organisms have served for hundreds of years as nature's paradigmatic participants, technology means that organisms are just one of many some ways within which the flora and fauna can be prepared.
When residing beings interact -- as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis -- new collective members can emerge. during this publication, prime students think of the organic and philosophical implications of the emergence of those new collective members from institutions of dwelling beings. the themes they give thought to variety from metaphysical matters to organic examine on traditional choice, sociobiology, and symbiosis.
The participants examine individuality and its dating to evolution and the categorical proposal of organism; the stress among workforce evolution and person model; and the constitution of collective participants and the level to which they are often outlined through an identical notion of individuality. those new views on advanced individuality should still set off very important revisions to either philosophical and organic conceptions of the individual.
Frederic Bouchard, Ellen Clarke, Jennifer Fewell, Andrew Gardner, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Charles J. Goodnight, Matt Haber, Andrew Hamilton, Philippe Huneman, Samir Okasha, Thomas Pradeu, Scott Turner, Minus van Baalen"
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Additional resources for From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality (Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology)
An organism is not literally indivisible. Many organisms can stay alive having been divided. There is a sense in which an organism can be made up of organisms as parts. But there is also a sense in which this is not true. If a whole system has a highly organismal form of integration, if it is a whole with respect to its metabolic activity, then its parts must, necessarily, be less organismal. Those parts must be highly interdependent, less able to function as metabolic wholes themselves. In the case of Darwinian individuals, there is some of the same phenomenon, but it apparently takes a weaker form.
4 A fuller picture. Darwinian Individuals 31 multi-kingdom units, in fact. In the complete diagram, we have some multispecies organisms that are Darwinian individuals, and some that are not. Not pictured on the diagram are symbiotic associations that are not integrated enough to count as organisms or Darwinian individuals—good examples might be ant-acacia associations (Wheeler 1913). 14 The way this diagram organizes the cases may make two simplifications. These involve the line separating single-species from multispecies cases.
The Individual in the Animal Kingdom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1911. Huxley TH. 1852. Upon animal individuality. Proc R Inst G B 1: 184–189. Janzen DH. 1977. What are dandelions and aphids? Am Nat 111: 586–589. Kirk DL. Volvox: Molecular-Genetic Origins of Multicellularity and Cellular Differentiation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1998. Knowles TC. 1998. Alfalfa Aphid Complex (Blue Alfalfa Aphid, Pea Aphid, and the Spotted Alfalfa Aphid). University of Arizona Cooperative Extension: 1–4.