Friars and Jews in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (The by Steven J. McMichael, Susan E. Myers

By Steven J. McMichael, Susan E. Myers

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See especially Vital, va–vb, rb–va, ra–vb, rb, rb–va. This interest is also seen in Vidit Iacob, , and Alexander,  (which reflect the common source) and in Alexander, . 11 Alexander, . Essentially the same statement is found in Vital, rb and Vidit Iacob, . , Alexander, –. 9 10       The question, of course, is how far up the hierarchy they think the corruption extends or will extend. Does it (or will it) extend to the pope? This is a crucial question.

He did not focus on their role in the crucifixion, he did not demonize them and make them part of a devilish conspiracy against Christendom, he did not argue that they ought to be enserfed and treated harshly, and he certainly would have fought against massacres and forced conversions. Joachim assumed that the conversion of the Jews would take place only when the appropriate time came according to God’s plan and he assumed that time was near. He also had a glimmering of the instrument of that conversion, an order or orders that would embrace genuine poverty, that would be characterized by true humility and love, and that would preach the spiritual understanding.

The last three visions were seen as dealing with the final times. The sevenfold division of church history provided a framework in which the church proceeded through a series of distinct challenges, each countered by a specific group within the church. The Jews presented the first threat, and it was the apostles who checked it. Then came the pagans versus the martyrs; then the heretics were combated by the church fathers; then the hypocrites were countered by the monks. Thus, in the first four periods, the church was opposed by Judaism, paganism, heresy, and hypocrisy.

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