By William Pryor (Eds.)
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Extra info for Free Radicals in Biology
Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 5524 (1964). P. H. Kasai and D. , / . Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 6085 (1970) ; 94, 720 (1972). R. S. Mulliken, / . Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 811 (1952). Ε. M. Kosower and P. E. , / . Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 3493 (1956). Ε. M. Kosower, / . Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 3497 (1956). Ε. M. Kosower and L. Lindqvist, Tetrahedron Lett. p. 4481 (1965). C. S. Johnson, Jr. and H. S. Gutowsky, / . Chem. Phys. 39, 58 (1963). A. S. Hopkins, A. Ledwith, and M. F. Stam, Chem. Commun, p. 494 (1970). Ε. M. Kosower, Progr.
The problem of precisely how free radicals are first generated from the hydrogen peroxide which arrives at the cell membrane is unsolved. (a) (b) H 0 + — CH—CHCH CH—CH 2 HO 2 2 — • HO- + ? , Campbell ) requires caution in its use, a principle which is difficult to maintain in practice. Two main results of Paraquat toxicity are proliferation of lung tissue and necrosis of certain other tissues. A possible common origin for these effects lies in the discovery by the Kosowers that conversion of a minor proportion of the glutathione within the cell to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) can have a marked effect on protein synthesis, even turning it off under the right circumstances .
Pryor, "Free Radicals," Tables 16-1 and 16-3, pp. 255 and 262. McGrawHill, New York, 1962. b c nitrobenzyl chloride (Fig. 11), but the slope is about 80% if the maximum for a limiting charge-transfer process from an initial state with zero charge separation. It is thus beyond reasonable doubt that the reaction proceeds by an electron-transfer pathway. More thorough analysis with the aid of additional information from electrochemical experiments  suggested that the mechanistic situation was complex, with different rate-limiting steps for the reaction of l-ethyl-4-carbomethoxypyridinyl with 4-nitrobenzyl fluoride, 4-nitrobenzyl chloride, and 4-nitrobenzyl bromide, respectively.