By R. B. Tait and G. G. Garrett (Eds.)
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Additional resources for Fracture and Fracture Mechanics. Case Studies
METHOD AND RESULTS The fractured samples were first examined by scanning electron microscopy. The fracture surface of one of the samples exhibited an exceptionally large pore (^ 600 ym in diameter) which was examined in detail. On the inner surface of this pore there were a large number of carbide grains exhibiting steps and a large number of micropores, ^ 1-5 ym in size (see Fig. 1 ) . e. 12 wt %. e. a complex carbide of tungsten and cobalt having formula Co W C, with x ranging from 0 to 1 (Johansson and Uhrenius, 1978).
The posi tion of these cracks is shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 9. Section through retarder radius area showing development of fatigue cracks at both inner (sharp) and outer piston radii. Fig. 10. Rig used to simulate inservice dynamic loads on components. Retarder unit is right column of load frame. FOOTNOTE To circumvent a major change in design, which the manufacturers were at that stage reluctant to undertake, the material from which the pistons were manufactured was changed to a stronger (yield strength 1 300 MPa) EN 30 B material, which dramati cally improved the fatigue properties of the components.
Fig. 3. Dismantled capsule showing outer sliding cylinder, un broken piston assembly and two broken piston heads. Fig. 4. Fracture face of piston. SERVICE TESTING Some difficulty was initially experienced in instrumenting the retarder piston for the service tests. The internal pressure gradients developed were in excess of 15,5 MPa, and special measures had to be taken to prevent internal pressure loss due to leakage and damage to the delicate strain gauge leads under dynamic con ditions. Furthermore, the operating characteristics of the component were not to be significantly altered by the instrumentation.