Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths by C.K. Gupta, N. Krishnamurthy

By C.K. Gupta, N. Krishnamurthy

Gupta and Krishnamurthy survey the medical and engineering literature to supply an summary of present practices for extracting infrequent earths and getting ready their derivatives for particular purposes. They determine the positioning, caliber, and volume of the world's infrequent earth assets and current an in depth account of classical and glossy extraction equipment. Chemical and electrochemical aid equipment also are coated, in addition to steel refining strategies. The authors are affiliated with the Bhabha Atomic study heart in Mumbai, India.

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Early samples of lanthanum metal were prepared by fused salt electrolysis using graphite electrodes, and melting point determinations using these samples, usually contaminated with carbon, led to the eutectic being reported as the pure metal’s melting point. The availability of relatively large amounts of metallothermically prepared pure rare earth metals in the 1950s led to more accurate determination of their melting points. Melting point determined by thermal analysis using a refractory metal crucible also needs to be checked for the possibility of eutectic being reported as the melting point.

Certain lanthanum-based ceramic compositions are, however, important superconducting materials. 5 Magnetic Properties The 4f electrons determine the magnetic behavior of the rare earth metals. In the completed 4f subshell, the magnetic effects of different electrons cancel each other out, but in the incomplete 4f subshell, they do not. All rare earth metals, except scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, ytterbium, and lutetium are strongly paramagnetic. On cooling many of them become antiferromagnetic, and on cooling further a number of these elements become ferromagnetic.

Unlike most rare earths it lacks a magnetic moment. It also has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth. It is perhaps the least naturally abundant of the lanthanides. It is the ideal host for x-ray phosphors because it produces the densest known white material, lutetium tantalate (LuTaO4). It is utilized as a dopant in matching lattice parameters of certain substrate garnet crystals, such as indium-gallium-garnet (IGG) crystals due to its lack of a magnetic moment. Yttrium has the highest thermodynamic affinity for oxygen of any element; this characteristic is the basis for many of its applications.

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