By Jeremy Black
In Europe because the Seventies, Jeremy Black bargains a succinct and authoritative research of the social and fiscal improvement of Europe in contemporary a long time.
whereas supplying a whole therapy of environmental, demographic, and cultural matters in Europe, Black additionally bargains delineations of broader political, monetary, and social issues discussing useful, rapid matters like migration, crime, transportation, and the surroundings. Europe since the Seventies reveals how eu society has replaced strikingly—former societal strains drawn at the foundation of economics and sophistication have given approach to strains shaped by means of identification, equivalent to gender, sexual orientation, and ethnicity. in the meantime, the ecu Union has created an multiplied Europe and is now a trying out flooring for brand new different types of economics and politics.
A readable, concise, and well timed paintings, this newest ebook by way of a striking eu historian could be quintessential to a person wishing to appreciate the complexities of present-day Europe.
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Extra info for Europe Since the Seventies (Reaktion Books - Contemporary Worlds)
Unfortunately, it often proved a poor and dispiriting urban environment, and this was a particular problem in Communist societies, where people were not given choice, as well as in public-housing systems in Western Europe, where poverty removed the element of choice. Yet mass-produced public housing was not inevitably of low quality, as a consideration of the situation in Scandinavia makes amply clear. energy Across Europe, there was particular pressure on energy supplies. Paralleling the increased demand for water, for showers, dish-washers and washing-machines, rising energy needs reflected the enormous growth in both per capita and aggregate energy consumption, in response to developments in economic activity, social processes and living arrangements.
Indeed, the spread of car ownership in Eastern Europe, in this case in the former East Germany, was partly responsible for the major increase in the German vehicle stock – to 48 million by 2001, compared to 35 million for France, 32 million for Britain and 27 million for Italy. In many European states the position of car manufacturers, such as Citroën and Peugeot in France, Volkswagen, bmw, Porsche and Mercedes in Germany, Fiat in Italy and Volvo in Sweden, was seen as crucial to the economy, to the trade balance and to national prestige.
At the level of public provision, health-care systems, of which France was justly proud, did not extend to the long-term care required for effective social welfare. The pressures caused by the marked rise in the number and percentage of the elderly (see next chapter), a large percentage of whom lived on their own, were also highly significant. In 2007 the focus, instead, was on the collapse of social cohesion reflected in the role of arsonists in causing forest fires, as in Italy. In Greece and Italy, this was given an added twist as it was argued that the arsonists were working for property developers determined to see land cleared for development whatever the attitude of officials.