By Andrew Mold
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Extra resources for EU Development Policy in a Changing World: Challenges for the 21st Century
Moreover, in 1974 trade co-operation agreements with India, Uruguay, and Brazil were concluded. In 1976 a budget line for extending financial aid to the non-associated countries from Asia and Latin America (ALA) was included in the budget. But the resources of this budget line remained limited in scope. Previously some arrangements had been made through the budget for development aid. This was in the area of food aid, which was directly funded from the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF).
12 The introduction of this chapter provoked an extensive debate as to its applicability – even though there is no legal difference of opinion on its scope. 13 In the EU Constitutional Treaty, signed in 2004, the confusion was remedied and the provisions between developing countries and non-developing countries were distinctly separated. 14 The Constitutional Treaty further provides a legal basis for the EU’s humanitarian assistance aimed at relief operations in natural and man-made disasters. This legal basis is given in a separate Treaty article and its clarity is legally uncontested.
Negotiations for the association of Greece started as early as 1959 and came into force in 1962. Turkey signed an association agreement with the EC in 1963. Morocco and Tunisia also approached the Community for an agreement in 1963 but nothing was signed until 1969. In 1970 controversial preferential trade agreements were signed with the dictatorial Spanish regime as well as with Israel, despite growing tension in the Middle East. The policy towards the Mediterranean (including the Middle East) was strongly reinforced by the outbreak of the oil crisis in 1973.