Endosymbionts in Paramecium by Ryo Hoshina, Nobutaka Imamura (auth.), Masahiro Fujishima

By Ryo Hoshina, Nobutaka Imamura (auth.), Masahiro Fujishima (eds.)

Endosymbiosis is a main strength in eukaryotic mobilephone evolution. with a purpose to comprehend the molecular mechanisms occupied with this mutualistic dating, experiments to breed endosymbiosis are critical. The ciliate "Paramecium" is a perfect host for acting such studies.

Topics awarded during this quantity are: the origins of algal and bacterial symbionts in "Paramecium", the variety of endosymbiotic micro organism, comparable to "Holospora" micro organism and particularly "Chlorella" species, in addition to the an infection and upkeep processes.

The metabolic regulate, the legislation of circadian rhythms and photobiological points of the mutualistic organization, in addition to the killer impression of "Paramecium" and its causative brokers are additional issues discussed.

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B, e, h, k, n, q Cells treated with Gomori’s solution. c, f, i, l, o, r Cells treated with Gomori’s solution lacking sodium b-glycerophosphate, a substrate for the acid phosphatase (AcPase) (control experiment). s Isolated symbiotic algae treated with Gomori’s solution lacking the substrate. Experiments were repeated more than ten times; the results were reproducible. a–c DV-I; d–f DV-II; g–i DV-IIIb; j–l DV-IVb; m–o An alga is just escaping by budding of the DV-IVb membrane (red arrowhead). Insets in m–o show enlarged photomicrographs of the escaping alga.

Fluviatilis could not be maintained. Therefore, it appears that the establishment of endosymbiosis is not only algal-species-specific but is also algal-strain-specific. It is noteworthy that these infection-incapable strains were able to escape from the host DV by budding of the host DV membrane, but they failed to localize beneath the host cell surface and were eventually digested (Fig. 9) (Kodama and Fujishima 2007). Consequently, algal attachment beneath the host cell surface is an indispensable phenomenon for establishment of endosymbiosis.

By pouring fresh modified Dryl’s solution (MDS) (Dryl 1959) (KH2PO4 was used instead of NaH2PO4•2H2O) into this tube, the paramecia were washed and algal cells outside the paramecia were simultaneously removed through the mesh. The paramecia retained in the mesh were transferred to a centrifuge tube and resuspended in MDS, and then chased for various times under a fluorescent light (1,500 lx) at 25 ± 1°C. 2) at various time points, and the cells were observed under a DIC microscope algae and fixed at 10-s intervals for 60 s to determine the timing of the DV-II appearance.

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