Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Middle by Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann

By Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann

Elections in Asia, written by means of specialists within the box, offers the first-ever compendium of electoral info for the entire sixty two states in Asia, Australia, and Oceania from their independence to the current. Exhaustive information on nationwide elections and referendum are given in each one bankruptcy. the 2 volumes presents the definative source for old and cross-national comparisons of elections and electoral procedure around the world.

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Extra resources for Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia Volume 1 (Elections in Asia and the Pacific Vol. 1)

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Three countries have a higher age limit, two of them in North Africa (Morocco and Tunisia with 20 years) and one in Europe (Austria with 19 years). 23 In Asia-Pacific a voting age limit of 21 years exists currently in Azerbaijan, the Fiji Islands, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Pakistan, Samoa, and Singapore. In Japan, Nauru, South Korea, and Taiwan it is set at 20 years, while in Jordan it is 19 years. Lower thresholds are found in Indonesia, North Korea (17 years respectively), and Iran (16 years).

We are hence extremely grateful to them for their painstaking efforts, which have opened a whole series of countries to cross-national election research. The task of collecting and elaborating data did not simply entail finding the relevant data, but often selecting between concurring and inconsistent sets of data published by different national authorities, resolving the inconsistencies that arose from the need to combine the data drawn from those different sources, and finally sometimes re-arranging and re-calculating the data according to international standards.

The most recent process in this regard—the unification of Yemen—confirms the basically elitist pattern of state-building in the Middle East. It was indeed the elites in northern and southern Yemen who took the decision of uniting both parts in 19897 90, and—having times changed even in the Middle East—a popular referendum confirmed this decision in 1991. The first elections held in unified Yemen showed, however, that the popular support for the new entity was actually rather precarious. Competitive parliamentary elections held in 1993 underlined the dominance of the political forces from the North, strengthened tribalist and Islamist forces that had boycotted the referendum and led subsequently to the unilateral cancellation of the political framework by the Southern leaders.

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